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TABLE 22.214.171.124-2: Military Specification Type SELECTION AND USAGE GUIDE FOR CAPACITORS (Cont'd) Style Usage Notes Failure Modes MIL-C-39022 Metallized dielectric, dc (hermetically sealed in metal cases), ESTABLISHED RELIABILITY CHR09 CHR19 Intended for use in applications where the ac voltage component is small compared to the dc voltage rating and where occasional periods of low insulation resistance and momentary breakdown can be tolerated. If ac component is present, the sum of the applied dc and the peak ac voltage shall not exceed the rated dc voltage, and the ac voltage shall not exceed 20% of the dc voltage rating. Opens occur due to poor internal connections, which under strong electrical or mechanical stress, will rupture. Shorts can occur due to internal solder flow as the result of over-heating the leads during external soldering. Momentary shorts occur very frequently because the dielectric is so thin, but will heal themselves, losing a small amount of capacitance in the process. MIL-C-55514 Plastic or metallized plastic dielectric ESTABLISHED RELIABILITY CFR02 CFR03 CFR04 CFR05 CFR06 CFR08 Capacitors for use in applications requiring high insulation resistance, low dielectric absoprtion or low loss factor over wide temperature ranges and where ac is small with respect to the dc rating. Capacitors have limited moisture resistance and are not recommended where heavy transient or pulse currents are encountered. Same comments as given for MIL-C-39022. FIXED, HYBRID, CHIP MIL-C-55681 Chip Ceramic dielectric ESTABLISHED RELIABILITY MIL-C-55365 Chip Tantalum dielectric ESTABLISHED RELIABILITY CDROl CDR02 CDR03 CDR04 CWR02 CWR05 CWR03 CWR06 CWR04 CWR07 CWR08 Intended for use in thin or thick film hybrid circuits. Decreased insulation resistance and shorts are the principal failure modes. Causes are severe delamination, ceramic rupture and electrode misregistrations. Intended for use in thin or thick film hybrid circuits for filtering, bypassing, coupling where the ac is small compared to the dc rated voltage. To be used only where protected from moisture. VARIABLE, CERAMIC MIL-C-81 Ceramic dielectric CV11 CV21 CV 31 Capacitors are intended for use where fine tuning adjustments are periodically required. They are frequently used in RF, IR, oscillator, phase shifter, and discriminator stages. Capacitance and adjustment are relatively linear. Capacitance change with temperature change is nonlinear; also the temperature sensitivity over the capacitance range is nonlinear. Do not use these units for temperature compensation. These are small-size trimmers which are relatively stable under shock and vibration. Where greater stability is required, air trimmers should be used. Same comments as given for MIL-C-11015.