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Electrical Circuit Components
electrical resistance
• Resistance opposes the flow of current through a
• It is a property of a material and can be described as
that material’s “resistivity”
• Resistance = Voltage / Current
• Resistance is measured in Ohms
• Conductance (or conductivity) is the opposite of
resistance (or resistivity)
the resistor
• Resistance is the ratio of
voltage to current
• (R = V / I)
• Therefore, changing the
resistance by adding
resistors allows you to
manipulate the voltage
and current in a circuit
• Capacitance is the ability of something to store an
electrical charge
• Charge is a property of matter that causes it to
experience a force (attraction or repulsion) when near
other electrically charged matter. There are two types
of electric charges—positive and negative.
• Capacitance = Charge / Voltage [ C = q / V ]
the capacitor
• Capacitors are used in
electrical circuits to store
energy for later release
• Inductance is the process by which a change in
current creates voltage
• It is a property of a conductor whereby a voltage is
“induced” in the conductor itself and any nearby
• Inductance = Voltage / Rate of Current Change
the inductor
• An inductor stores energy
in a magnetic field
• Like capacitors, inductors
store energy for later
The diode
• A diode is an electrical
component with high
resistance to current flow
in one direction and low
resistance to current flow
in the other
• In an electrical circuit,
diodes are used to allow
the current to flow in one
direction only
comparison and recap
• A resistor opposes the flow of current
• A capacitor stores energy in an electric field
• An inductor stores energy in a magnetic field
• A diode allows current to flow in one direction while
blocking current in the opposite direction