Download Chapter 25, Iron, Ruthenium and Osmium

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Metal carbonyl wikipedia, lookup

Spin crossover wikipedia, lookup

Metalloprotein wikipedia, lookup

Evolution of metal ions in biological systems wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Greenwood & Earnshaw
2nd Edition
Chapter 25
Group 8
Iron, Ruthenium & Osmium
Iron, Ruthenium & Osmium
•Iron bears greater similarities to Cobalt & Nickel than to Ru & Os.
•Ru/Os bear greater similarities to Rh-Pd/Ir-Pt than to iron.
•Electronegativities – large increase in 5th & 6th periods.
•Burning in O2 yields Fe(III); Ru(IV) and Os(VIII) oxides.
•MPs Iron higher than Mn; Ru ~ Tc; Os ~ Re.
•Enthalpies of atomization Fe higher than Mn; Os greater than Re.
•Density of Osmium highest of all elements.
•Iron is the first transition element to not attain its group oxidation
state. The highest is [FeO4]2- or Fe(VI).
•Trends in the d-block are smooth if the anomalous behavior of the
Group 7 elements are neglected, a consequence of their d5 e config.
A factor also seen in the metal electrical resistivities.
Iron, Ruthenium & Osmium
• Iron is technologically very important. The control of carbon
content is extremely important to the properties of iron & steel.
Steel < 2% carbon < cast iron. Heat and mechanical history play
crucial roles in malleability, hardness, strength and corrosion
resistance. Iron is electropositive, pyrophoric as a fine powder and
burns in air if fine threads. Bulk iron oxidizes readily in air
especially if moisture is present, reacts readily with dilute acids but
is rendered passive by concentrated oxidizing acids such as nitric.
Fe2O3 is used as a pigment (RR red) and abrasive (jewelers rouge).
•Ru and Os are stable to atmospheric attack, but are susceptible to
halogen oxidation. Finely divided Os however gives of the
characteristic odor of OsO4. They react with strong alkali when air
is present but are un affected by non-oxidizing acids. Ru & Os have
no oxides below M(IV).
1
Oxides of Ruthenium & Osmium
OsO4
(VIII) RuO4
NH3
KOH(aq)
HX(aq)
N
Os
O
H2O
O
161 pm
Cl
X = Cl, Br
O
[OsO4(OH)2]
N
Cl
Cl
yellow
RuO4
2
Os
236 pm
Cl
HCl
Perosmate, deep red,
octahedral, trans O's.
easily
reduced
to
-2
reddish purple
[OsO2(OH)4]
Cl
Osmate, octahedral
purple, diamagnetic.
This bond much
longer and is labile,
261 pm.
K4[RuCl5ORuCl 5]
KCl
-2
Deep red, diamagnetic
Ru(IV), linear Ru-O-Ru.
M(IV) ordinarily the most stable oxidation state of Os, Ru easily reduced to
-2
-2
M(III). The [OsX6] and [RuX6] are most well known.
Aqueous complexes of 5th and 6th period transition elements, but
especially the platinum group, tend to be low spin. Spin Orbit
Coupling is much stronger in these groups, nuclear charges
much larger than 4th period, ligands are more strongly held,
magnetic moments fall with decreasing temperature due to SOC.
Metal Carbonyls
2-
O
C
H
O
O
+
C
C
O
Fe
C
O
C
O
C
O
O
O
C
O
C
O
2-
O
C
Fe
C
O
O
O
C
O
C
H
H
Fe
C
C
H
O
C
+
Fe
C
H
O
C
Fe
C
C
O
C
O
2