Download Chapter 15-4 Notes: The Civil War and American Life

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Chapter 15-4 Notes: The Civil War and American Life
The Civil War divided the nation, but also caused divisions within the nation
o not all northerners supported war to end slavery or restore the Union
o not all southerners supported war to defend slavery or secession
o In the South, opposition to the war was strongest in Georgia and North
Carolina, though North Carolina provided the 2nd most troops to the war effort
 Regions with large slaveholding plantations often supported the war
more than poorer back-country regions
o In the North, many opposed the Emancipation Proclamation, some believed
the South had the right to secede, some blamed Lincoln and the Republicans
for forcing the South into war
 Northern Democrats who opposed the war were called Copperheads –
strong in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio
o In both regions during the war, people against the war tried to disrupt war
efforts – encouraging soldiers to desert, helping POWs escape, prevent men
from volunteering
 Lincoln and Jefferson Davis suspended the right of habeas corpus constitutional protection against unlawful imprisonment; more than
13,000 people were arrested and jailed without trials in the north
During the war, desertion was a problem – between 300,000 and 550,000 Union &
Confederate soldiers left their units; some returned after crops were planted or
harvested – often 1/3 to 1/2 of soldiers were away at a time
o Both sides established drafts, system of required military service, to meet the
need for troops
 Confederacy implemented in 1862 – white men 18 to 35, later
expanded from 17 to 50
 Union implemented in 1863 for men 20 to 45
o Wealthy people could escape fighting by hiring substitutes in their place, or
paying the government $300; or slave-owners with 20 or more slaves did not
have to serve
Northern industries boomed during the war as they turned out goods for the military
– many jobs were available, but there were shortages of workers
o To pay for the war, Congress levied the first income tax – tax on the money
people receive from work
o Union also printed about $400 million in paper money to help pay expenses
 This additional money caused inflation, or a rise in prices
o Inflation in the south was worse because of the shortages of goods
 Pair of shoes that sold for $18 in 1862 could cost $800 in 1864
Women on both sides participated in any way they could during the war; some spied
behind enemy lines, took over businesses, farms, plantations, worked as nurses.
o More than 400 disguised themselves as men and joined the Union or
Confederate armies
o Many worked in factories, making ammunition or guns; others took
government jobs
o America’s first female physician, Elizabeth Blackwell, trained nurses for the
Union army; Dorothea Dix became head of Union army nurses; Harriet
Tubman served as a nurse; Clara Barton cared for wounded soldiers on the
battle field