Download VERBALS EXTRA HELP PARTICIPLES – a verb form used as an

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PARTICIPLES – a verb form used as an adjective. IF a participle is the MAIN VERB IN THE
VERB PHRASE, it is NOT a verbal!
Present participle: ends in “ing”
Past participle: ends in “d” or “ed,” unless it’s an irregular past tense verb.
Participial phrases: contains the participle and its modifiers and complements. The entire phrase
is used as the adjective.
The cheering fans enjoyed the game.
The frozen pond is the best place to ice skate in this town.
Stapled in the corner, the handout contained 10 pages.
The cat basking in the sun looked sleepy.
GERUNDS – a verb form used as a noun. A gerund noun has five functions: subject, direct
object, object of the preposition, predicate nominative, indirect object. The gerund phrase
consists of the gerund and its modifiers and complements. The entire phrase is used as a noun.
Gerunds: end in “ing”
_____1. I have enjoyed learning about the Underground Railroad.
_____2. Resting spots for runaway slaves were called “stations.”
_____3. Those responsible for guiding slaves were called “conductors.”
_____4. Many people helped the slaves by donating clothes for them.
_____5. One difficulty for the slaves was finding enough food.
_____6. Locating the routes on modern maps has proved difficult.
_____7. Among notable conductors who made daring rescues of slaves were Levi Coffin,
Harriet Tubman, and William Still.
_____8. Mr. Still, a writer and civil rights activist, is famous for being the “Father of the
Underground Railroad.”
_____9. I will be reading more about Still’s life this weekend.
____10. Making a poster about Mr. Still is my homework for Monday.
_____11. Give camping in the woods a try.
INFINITIVE: a verb form that is used as a noun, adjective or adverb. The word “to” appears
before the infinitive. Be careful not to confuse the infinitive or infinitive phrase with a
prepositional phrase! An infinitive phrase is an infinitive with its modifiers and complements,
all acting together as either a noun, adjective, or adverb.
The infinitive noun functions as a subject, direct object or predicate nominative.
_________1. Andrew knows that to drive to California is impossible this year.
_________2. Sam told J.J. that he'd like to travel to China.
_________3. The coach told Dylan to kick the football toward the goalposts.
. _________4. Mr. Smith built a storm cellar in which to shelter during tornadoes.
_________5. Mitchell's dream, to fly a plane, was finally coming true!
_________6. Ben and Zach tried to follow orders, but they failed.
_________7. Erica was about to jump into the pool when her mother got home.
_________8. After he hit the squirrel, Bruce had no choice except to drive on.
_________9. Sean's suggestion, to listen carefully, was appreciated.
________10. Tyler and Jonathan wanted to do their best work on the project.
________11. Diane’s decision, to stop at Starbuck’s to get a cup of coffee, made her late for her
An adverb is a word that answers the questions when, where, how (sometimes why) and to what
extent or degree. If the adverb answers the questions when, where, how or why, it will modify
the verb. If it answers the question to what extent or degree, it will modify an adjective or
another adverb.
Remember that an adjective is a word that modifies a noun or pronoun and answers the
questions: which one? what kind? and how many? An infinitive that acts like an adjective will
do the same thing.
APPOSITIVES: Essential: no commas/Non-essential: commas
The author O’Henry wrote “One Thousand Dollars.”
O’Henry, an author whose real name was William Sydney Porter, wrote humorous stories.