see an excerpted movement from a symphony or concerto performed without its larger context. Purely instrumental concerts are, by contrast, a common occurrence. We enjoy a higher standard of performance than was heard in Beethovenâs day, but this is at least in part due to the inculcation of a âmuseum cultureâ in the concert hall, in which an established body of wellknown works is the most commonly performed. 8. What are the salient features of Beethovenâs late works? How are these reflected in the Missa solemnis, the Ninth Symphony, and the late string quartets? Beethovenâs late works exhibit a marked degree of contrapuntal activity, a thorny and obtuse formal structure, an uninhibited approach to scope and length, and novel orchestration. The Missa Solemnis is a fine example of a late Beethoven workâs often staggering scale: Originally composed for the celebration of Archduke Randolphâs installation as archbishop of Olomouc in 1820, Beethovenâs endless enlargements and expansions meant that the work was not finished until 1823; and when complete, its impractical length made it unusable in any church service. The Ninth Symphony, although also of immense length (typically running over an hour), is most representative of Beethovenâs late style in its formal convolutions and innovative scoring. Its last movement, in particular, is striking in these regards, seemingly through-composed and drawing upon a large chorus and soloists in addition to a sizable orchestra. And finally, in the late quartets, Beethoven provides some of his most difficult contrapuntal writing. In the original finale to Op. 130 (which eventually became the discrete Op. 133), Beethoven composed a fugue of such length and difficulty that its publisher, Mathias Artaria, insisted upon revision. Beethoven, usually obstinate on such points but perhaps sensing the truth in Artariaâs complaints, agreed.