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AP World History Ch. 3 and 4 • 1. Map: Greece and Asia Minor: Recreate, label the map on p. 67 • 2. Map: Mediterranean Region: Recreate, label the map on p. 71 • 3. Diversity and Dominance, An Israelite Prophet Chastizes the Ruling Class, p. 78-79. Complete questions 1-3. • 4. “Ancient Textiles and Dyes” p. 82 Write a ½ page summary of the writing. The Cosmopolitan Middle East 1700–1100 B.C.E. • The Cosmopolitan Middle East, 1700– 1100 B.C.E. • Western Asia • 1. In the southern portion of western Asia, the Kassites ruled Babylonia during this period. • In the north, the Assyrians had their origins in the northern Tigris area. They were involved in trade in tin and silver. • 2. The Hittites had their capital in Anatolia (Turkey); used horse-drawn chariots; and had access to important copper, silver, and iron deposits. • 3. During the second millennium B.C.E., Mesopotamian political and cultural concepts spread across much of western Asia. • Commerce and Communication • 1. The Syria-Palestine area was an important crossroads for the trade in metals. For this reason, the Egyptians and the Hittites fought battles and negotiated territorial agreements concerning control over Syria-Palestine. • 2. Access to metals was vital to all bronze-age states, but metals, including copper and tin for bronze, often had to be obtained from faraway places. • Demand for metals spurred the development of trade in copper from Anatolia and Cyprus, tin from Afghanistan and Cornwall, silver from Anatolia, and gold from Nubia. The Assyrian Empire: Land Bathed in Blood 911–612 B.C.E. • Assyrian Empire, 911–612 B.C.E. • 1. Assyrian homeland was in northern Mesopotamia. It had more rain and a more temperate climate than Sumer and Akkad, but it was also more exposed to raiders. • 2. Assyrian power revived in the ninth century B.C.E. and the Assyrians built an empire, expanding along trade routes westward toward the Mediterranean, north to modern Armenia, east to modern Iran, and south to Babylonia. • 1. Assyrian kings were regarded as the center of the universe, chosen by the gods as their surrogates on earth. Kings had secular and religious duties. • 2. The secular duties of kings included receiving information, hearing and deciding on complaints, and carrying out diplomacy and military leadership. The religious duties of kings included supervision of the state religion, performance of public and private rituals, and consulting and gaining the approval of the gods. • 3. Assyrian kings were celebrated in propaganda that was designed to produce feelings of awe and fear in the hearts of their subjects. • Conquest and Control • 1. At their peak, the Assyrian armies had ½ million troops divided into functionally specialized units. Assyrian troops used a variety of military technologies, including iron weapons, cavalry, couriers, signal fires, and spy networks. • 2. Assyrian techniques of conquest included terror tactics and mass deportation of civilian populations. • Mass deportation served a dual purpose: to destroy the morale of the enemy and to transfer needed laborers to the core area of the empire. • 3. The Assyrians found it difficult to control their vast and diverse territory. Their level of control varied, being more effective at the core and less effective in the peripheral parts of the empire. • 4. Within the empire, the duties of Assyrian officials were to collect tribute and taxes, maintain law and order, raise and provision troops, and construct and maintain public works. The central government included high-ranking officials and professionals. • 1. Assyrian society had three major social strata: free, landowning citizens; farmers and artisans; and slaves. The Assyrian economy was based on agriculture but also included artisans and merchants. • 2. In the realm of knowledge and learning, the Assyrians both preserved the knowledge • The Assyrian Empire maintained libraries inherited from older that were attached to Mesopotamian societies and made original contributions to temples in the cities, mathematics and astronomy. such as the Library of Ashurbanipal in Ninevah. Israel 2000–500 B.C.E. • Israel, 2000–500 B.C.E. • 1. The Israelite people were nomadic herders and caravan drivers who developed a complex sedentary agricultural civilization. As they did so, their cult of a desert god evolved into an influential monotheistic religion. • 2. Israel’s location makes it a crossroads for trade. However, the area has few natural resources. • Origins, Exodus, and Settlement • 1. Sources for the early history of the Israelite people include the Hebrew Bible, which is based in part on oral traditions compiled in the fifth century B.C.E., and archeological excavations. • The story of Cain and Abel • 2. Biblical accounts of the and the stories of the origins of the Israelite people destruction of Sodom and include the stories of Gomorrah reflect the Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. tensions between the These stories may be a nomadic Israelite people compressed account of the and settled agricultural experiences of many people. generations of nomads. Jerusalem at time of Solomon Strategically located in the middle of lands occupied by the Israelite tribes and on a high plateau overlooking the central hills and the Judaean desert, Jerusalem was captured around 1000 B.C.E. by King David, who made it his capital (the City of David is at left; the citadel and palace complex at center). The next king, Solomon, built the First Temple to serve as the center of worship of the Israelite god, Yahweh. Solomon's Temple (at upper right) was destroyed during the Neo-Babylonian sack of the city in 587 B.C.E. The modest structure soon built to take its place was replaced by the magnificent Second Temple, erected by King Herod in the last decades of the first century B.C.E. and destroyed by the Romans in 70 C.E. (Ritmeyer Archaeological Design) • 3. The Biblical account of the Egyptian captivity is not confirmed by Egyptian sources but may be linked to the rise and fall of the Hyksos rulers of Egypt. • The period of Israelite slavery according to the Bible corresponds to the period of large-scale construction projects under Sethos I and Ramesses II, while the Biblical account of the exodus may reflect the memories of a migration from Egypt and nomadic life in the Sinai. • 4. The cult of Yahweh with its exclusive devotion to one god developed during the period of nomadism in the Sinai. • 5. The Biblical account of Israelite settlement in the land of Canaan says that Joshua led the Israelites into Canaan and destroyed Jericho and other Canaanite cities. • The archeological evidence of what probably happened is that the nomadic Israelite tribes settled in the hills of Canaan, where they were joined by other groups and • 1. Wars with the Philistines brought about the need for a strong central government. Saul, the first king, established the Israelite monarchy. David, the second king, completed the transition to monarchy. • 2. The Israelite monarchy reached the height of its power in the reign of King Solomon, who forged alliances and sponsored trade. Solomon also expanded the bureaucracy and the army, and built the first temple in Jerusalem. The temple priesthood • 4. Israelite people lived in extended families and practiced arranged marriage. Monogamy was the norm. Men were allowed to have extramarital relations; women were not. • 5. In early Israel, women enjoyed relative equality with their husbands in social life, but at the same time, they suffered certain legal disadvantages: women could not inherit property, nor could they initiate divorce. The main occupations of women were bearing and raising children, maintaining the household, and engaging in agriculture or herding. As society became more urbanized, some women began to work outside the home in a variety of occupations. • 6. There are some records of women exercising political influence. Examples include the story of Deborah and references to “wise women.” However, the status of women declined during the period of monarchy. • Fragmentation and Dispersal • 1. After Solomon, Israel divided into two kingdoms: Israel in the north (capital: Samaria), and Judah in the south (capital: Jerusalem). The two kingdoms were sometimes at peace with each other and sometimes fought. • 2. There were some significant religious developments during the period of fragmentation. The concept of monotheism was sharpened, but at the same time, some Israelites were attracted to the worship of Canaanite gods. • 3. Political developments during the period of fragmentation include the Assyrian destruction of the northern kingdom (Israel) in 721 B.C.E. and the fall of the southern kingdom (Judah) to the Babylonian monarch Nebuchadnezzar in 587 B.C.E. Nebuchadnezzar deported a large number of Jewish elites and craftspeople to Babylon. This was the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. • 4. During the Diaspora, the Jewish people developed institutions to preserve Jewish religion and culture. These developments continued even after some of the Babylonian Jews were permitted to return to Jerusalem. Developments of the Diaspora included a stronger commitment to monotheism, strict dietary rules, and veneration of the Sabbath. Phoenicia and the Mediterranean 1200–500 B.C.E. Phoenicia and the Mediterranean, 1200–500 B.C.E. • The Phoenician City-States • 1. The Phoenicians were the descendants of the ancient inhabitants of Syria, Lebanon, and Israel who were pushed into the strip of land between the mountains and the sea in modern Lebanon by about 1100 B.C.E. There, the Phoenicians established a number of small city-states that were deeply involved in commerce. They also invented the first alphabetical writing system. • 2. The major Phoenician city-states were Byblos, Berytus, Sidon, and Tyre. Carthage Carthage’s Commercial Empire • 1. The city of Carthage was established on a narrow promontory near modern Tunis around 814 B.C.E. The walled city was governed by two judges selected from upperclass families and by a senate that was dominated by the leading merchant families. • 2. The navy was the most important arm of Carthaginian power. Citizens served as rowers and navigators of the fast, maneuverable warships. • 3. Carthaginian foreign policy and military activity were in the service of trade and were deployed in enforcing a commercial monopoly in the Mediterranean and developing new trading opportunities. Carthaginian merchants were active around the Mediterranean and traded with sub-Saharan Africa, along the Atlantic coasts of Spain and France, and with Cornwall. • War and Religion • 1. The Carthaginians made no attempt to build a territorial empire; their empire was an empire of trade routes and ports. The Carthaginian military was subordinate to the civilian government and consisted of mercenary soldiers commanded by Carthaginian officers. • 2. Carthaginian religion involved the worship of capricious gods that needed to be appeased by sacrifice, including the sacrifice of Carthaginian children. The Greeks and Romans thought that the Carthaginians were a hard, gloomy people who treated their subjects harshly. Tophet of Carthage Here, from the seventh to second centuries B.C.E., the cremated bodies of sacrificed children were buried. Archaeological excavation has confirmed the claim in ancient sources that the Carthaginians sacrificed children to their gods at times of crisis. Stone markers, decorated with magical signs and symbols of divinities as well as family names, were placed over ceramic urns containing the ashes and charred bones of one or more infants or, occasionally, older children (Martha Cooper/Peter Arnold, Inc.) Greece The Aegean World 2000–1100 B.C.E. Mycenaean Greece st 1 Greek City State (1600 – 1100 B.C.) • Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea Geography Shapes Greek Life The roots of Greek culture are based on interaction of the Mycenaean, Minoan, and Dorian cultures. • Ancient Greece • Collection of separate lands where Greek-speaking people live • Includes mainland and about 2,000 islands • The sea shapes Greek civilization • Proximity to sea, lack of resources encourage sea travel and trade • The Land • Mountains slow travel, divide land into regions • Lack of fertile land leads to small populations, need for colonies • The Climate • Moderate climate promotes outdoor life • Greek men, especially, spend much of their time outside • Mycenaean Civilization Develops • Origins: Mycenaeans— Indo-Europeans who settled on Greek mainland in 2000 B.C. • Took their name from their leading city, Mycenae • Mycenaean warrior-kings dominate Greece from 1600–1100 B.C. • Contact with Minoans • After 1500 B.C., Mycenaeans adopt Minoan sea trade and culture • Minoan Civilization (2700 – 1450 B.C.) Island of Crete. • King Minos, the Palace of Knossos. • 2 theories about how they died out (1450 B.C.). • 1. Tidal wave when Thera disappeared. • 2. Invasion of Mycenaeans. • Mycenae: 1st Greek City State (1600 – 1100 B.C.) • Alliance of powerful monarchies, with walled capitals. Warrior culture: a lot of murals show hunting and fighting. Trade items have been found throughout the • Mediterranean. • 1. The Mycenaean Greek people are thought to be descended from a combination of an indigenous population and Indo-European invaders. The civilization developed suddenly around 1600 B.C.E. 2. First known through The Iliad and The Odyssey, the existence of Mycenaean civilization was proved by the archeological expedition. • Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae in southern Greece. He and other archeologists have discovered shaft graves, gold and silver jewelry, a palace complex, and other artifacts. • 3. Greek legends explain Mycenaean civilization as being the result of immigration from Phoenicia or the liberation of the Greeks from Minoan. There is no archeological evidence to back up these legendary accounts. The evidence does indicate, however, that Mycenaean civilization was influenced by Minoan civilization and that the Mycenaeans rose to power on profits from trade and piracy. • 4. Mycenaean sites share certain common characteristics: hilltop citadels with thick fortification walls that enclosed palaces and administrative buildings. • Typical of Mycenaean civilization were luxuryfilled tombs for rulers, large houses for the aristocracy, and the use of Linear B writing. Linear B was an early form of Greek that used symbols to represent syllables. • 5. The Mycenaean state controlled the economy, organizing grain agriculture and wool production. • We know little about the Mycenaean political system, religion, society, or particular historical events. The uniformity that is characteristic of the Mycenaean territory may have been due to some sort of political unity, or it may have been the result of extensive contact and trade. • • 6. Evidence for longdistance contact and trade includes wall paintings of ships in Egypt and Thera and excavated remains of the ships themselves. • Includes widespread dispersal of Cretan and Mycenaean pottery and other goods around the Aegean world and in the Middle East. The evidence indicates that Cretan traders came first, and were later joined and then replaced by Mycenaeans. • Thera: a Greek island that had a volcano at its center, which violently blew • up. • This caused most of the city on Thera to disappear, leading to the legend of Atlantis. • The Tsunami from this may have destroyed Knossos. • Mycenae: 1st Greek City State (1600 – 1100 B.C.) • Alliance of powerful monarchies, with walled capitals. • Warrior culture: a lot of murals show hunting and fighting. • Trade items have been found throughout the Mediterranean. • • Tholos Tombs (beehive tombs) Minotaur – said to guard the labyrinth under Agamemnon’s Palace. • Most famous of their military exploits is the 10 year siege of Troy. • Homer, poet, wrote about it 400 years later in the Illiad. • Helen, wife of the King of Sparta, is kidnapped and taken to Troy by Paris. • She had “the face that launched 1,000 ships.” • The Trojan War fought by Mycenaeans against city of Troy in 1200s B.C. • Once thought to be fictional, archaeological evidence has been found • Achilles was a mythical warrior whose mother dipped him in the river Styx (that separated the land of the dead from the living), holding him by his heel. • This made him impervious to harm, except his heel. • • 1300 – 1200 B.C. an invasion by the Sea Peoples (no clue who they were, this is the only way they are referred to in the few texts we have found) started the Dark Age of Greece (1100 – 750 B.C.) • Population and food • During the Dark Age fell (climate change writing almost from that volcano?) disappeared – few records exist. The Fall of Late Bronze Age Civilizations Dark Age of Greece (1100 – 750 B.C.) • The Fall of Late Bronze Age Civilizations • 1. Old centers of civilization in the Middle East were destroyed. • 2. Unknown invaders (The Sea Peoples 1300 – 1200 B.C.E. ) destroyed the Hittite kingdom. Syria likewise fell to invasions. • Population and food fell (climate • change from that volcano?) • 3. The Egyptians battled invasions from the sea in the north and lost control of Nubia in the south. • 4. Mycenaean civilization fell due to a combination of internal decline and external aggression. Annihilation of the trading routes of the eastern Mediterranean undermined the position of the Mycenaean elite and probably led to internal unrest and collapse. 5. Collapse of Mycenaean civilization demonstrates the degree to which the civilizations of the Late Bronze Age were interdependent; their prosperity and their very existence relied on the trade networks that linked them and gave them access to natural resources, particularly metals. When this cosmopolitan world collapsed, the Mediterranean and the Middle East entered a “Dark Age”—a period of poverty, isolation, and loss of knowledge. Athens, Sparta, and the Persian Wars • A Unique City-State • Sparta, isolated from much of Greece, builds military state • Sparta Dominates Messenians • Around 725 B.C., Sparta conquers Messenia • Messenians become helots— peasants forced to farm the land • Harsh rule leads to Messenian revolt; Spartans build stronger state Sparta’s Government and Society • Sparta government has four branches; citizens elect officials • Three social classes: citizens, free noncitizens, helots— slaves • Spartan Daily Life • Spartan values: duty, strength, individuality, discipline over freedom • Sparta has the most powerful army in Greece • Males move into barracks at age 7, train until 30, serve until 60 • Girls receive some military training and live hardy lives • Girls also taught to value service to Sparta above all else The Persian Wars • A New Kind of Army Emerges • Cheaper iron replaces bronze, making arms and armor cheaper • Leads to new kind of army; includes soldiers from all classes • Phalanx—feared by all, • Persian army attacks Athens, formation of soldiers with is defeated at Marathon in spears, shields 490 B.C. • Battle at Marathon • Runner Pheidippides races to • Persian Wars—between Athens to announce Greek Greece and Persian victory Empire—begin in Ionia • Thermopylae and Salamis • In 480 B.C., Persians launch new invasion of Greece • Greeks are divided; many stay neutral or side with Persians • Greek forces hold Thermopylae for three days before retreating • Athenians defeat Persians at sea, near island of Salamis • Victories at Salamis and Plataea force Persian retreat • Many city-states form Delian League and continue to fight Persians • The battles between Greece and the Persians in 480 B.C.E. was a major turning point in history. After this defeat, the Persians never again pushed west. • Remember, the culture of the Persians will shape the entire Middle East. • Think how your life would be different if the Persian empire had won that battle. Democracy • Consequences of the Persian Wars • New self-confidence in Greece due to victory • Athens emerges as leader of Delian League • Athens controls the league by using force against opponents • League members essentially become provinces of Athenian empire • Stage is set for a dazzling burst of creativity in Athens The growth of citystates in Greece leads to the development of several political systems, including democracy. • The City-State • By 750 B.C. the Greek city-state, or polis, is the formal government • A polis is a city and its surrounding villages; 50 to 500 square miles • Population of a city-state is often less than 10,000 • Citizens gather in the marketplace and acropolis—a fortified hilltop • Greek Political Structures • City-states have different forms of government • Monarchy—rule by a king; aristocracy—rule by nobility • Oligarchy—rule by small group of powerful merchants and artisans • Tyrants Seize Power • Rulers and common people clash in many city-states • Tyrants—nobles and wealthy citizens win support of common people • They seize control and rule in the interests of ordinary people • Athens Builds a Limited Democracy • Building Democracy • About 621 B.C., democracy—rule by the people—develops in Athens • Nobleman, Draco, develops legal code based on equality of citizens • Ruler Solon abolishes debt slavery; Cleisthenes has citizens make laws • Only native-born, propertyowning males are citizens • Athenian Education • Schooling only for sons of wealthy families • Girls learn from mothers and other female members of household The Greeks are credited for: • Democracy – Athens had this form of government. • Trial by Jury – people would vote guilty/innocent via vases and stones. • Civic Duty- citizens need to serve. • Mathematics – Euclid created the basics for geometry. • Came up with pi • Astronomy & Astrology • Philosophy • Art & Architecture • Olympics • Emphasis on Education Archimedes Screw- still used today to move water from hard to reach areas. • Greek temples were designed to honor the polytheistic religion (many gods). • Temples came in 3 orders: • 1. Doric- (smooth top, no or small base) • 2. Ionic- (rams horns on top and has a base) • 3. Corinthian- (curled leaves on top, base) • • Athenians and Spartans Go to War 431 B.C. city-states Sparta and Athens at war— Peloponnesian War • Sparta has better army, Athens has better navy • Plague strikes Athens in 430 B.C., kills many— including Pericles • Sparta and Athens sign truce in 421 B.C. • Sparta Gains Victory • 415 B.C. Athens renews war, attacks Syracruse; is defeated in 413 B.C. • Athens and allies surrender to Sparta in 404 B.C. • Philosophers Search for Truth • Plato—student of Socrates; writes The Republic —an ideal society • In 387 B.C., establishes Athens school, the Academy; lasts 900 years • His writings dominate European philosophy for 1,500 years • Aristotle—student of Plato; uses rules of logic for argument • Tutors 13-year-old prince who becomes • His work provides the basis for scientific Alexander the Great method, still used today • • Alexander the Great • Born in 356 B.C. in the Kingdom of Macedonia, north of mainland Greece. • Although he lived only to the age of 32, he ruled the largest empire the world had ever seen, stretching from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indus River (India). Alexander in Thebes • In 335 B.C., the Greek city-state of Thebes revolted and declared its independence from Macedonian rule. • Alexander’s army • Alexander, went to defeated them. Thebes with After the battle, 30,300 troops to Alexander’s troops crush the revolt. destroyed the city. Alexander in Persia • • • • • • • 334 B.C., set out to conquer the • Persian Empire, most powerful empire in the ancient world. At the Battle of Issus, Alexander’s forces defeated the Persian army led by King Darius III. • • After destroying the Persian capital of Persepolis, Alexander became the ruler of the Persian empire. • He appointed many Persians as governors in his conquered territories and allowed the Persians to continue practicing their customs and beliefs. Alexander in Egypt • 332 B.C., his forces • arrived in Egypt. They met no resistance when they entered the country, the Egyptians made Alexander king. • Before he left Egypt, he founded a new city, Alexandria. • The Library of Alexandria become famous for holding most of the knowledge of the Ancient World. • • Alexander in India • 327 B.C. Alexander entered India. • Over the next 3 years, his troops fought many battles to conquer Indian rulers. • After a victory at the Battle of the River Hydaspes, Alexander’s troops began the long journey home to Macedonia. • (why stop here?) • • • • • • • • • By his death in 323 B.C., in Babylon, he had • founded over 70 cities and established libraries and museums throughout his empire. He is said to have left his empire “to the strongest,” which led to 3 of his generals dividing his empire. • Ptolemy: Egypt, Palestine, Phoenicia. • Seleucus: Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria • Lysimachus: Asia Minor and Macedonia Hellenism- Alexander’s Legacy • This is a term used to describe the three centuries between Alexander’s Empire and the formation of the Roman Empire (27 B.C.) • During this period Greek culture spread from its Mediterranean base • eastwards to the Indus River Valley (India) and westwards to the Atlantic.