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AP World History
Ch. 3 and 4
• 1. Map: Greece and Asia Minor:
Recreate, label the map on p. 67
• 2. Map: Mediterranean Region: Recreate,
label the map on p. 71
• 3. Diversity and Dominance, An Israelite
Prophet Chastizes the Ruling Class, p.
78-79. Complete questions 1-3.
• 4. “Ancient Textiles and Dyes” p. 82
Write a ½ page summary of the writing.
The Cosmopolitan Middle
1700–1100 B.C.E.
• The Cosmopolitan Middle East, 1700–
1100 B.C.E.
• Western Asia
• 1. In the southern portion of western Asia,
the Kassites ruled Babylonia during this
• In the north, the Assyrians had their origins
in the northern Tigris area. They were
involved in trade in tin and silver.
• 2. The Hittites had their capital in Anatolia
(Turkey); used horse-drawn chariots; and
had access to important copper, silver, and
iron deposits.
• 3. During the second millennium B.C.E.,
Mesopotamian political and cultural
concepts spread across much of western
• Commerce and Communication
• 1. The Syria-Palestine area
was an important crossroads
for the trade in metals. For this
reason, the Egyptians and the
Hittites fought battles and
negotiated territorial
agreements concerning control
over Syria-Palestine.
• 2. Access to metals was vital
to all bronze-age states, but
metals, including copper and
tin for bronze, often had to be
obtained from faraway places.
• Demand for metals spurred
the development of trade in
copper from Anatolia and
Cyprus, tin from Afghanistan
and Cornwall, silver from
Anatolia, and gold from
The Assyrian Empire:
Land Bathed in Blood
911–612 B.C.E.
• Assyrian Empire,
911–612 B.C.E.
• 1. Assyrian
homeland was in
Mesopotamia. It
had more rain and
a more temperate
climate than Sumer
and Akkad, but it
was also more
exposed to raiders.
• 2. Assyrian power revived in the
ninth century B.C.E. and the
Assyrians built an empire,
expanding along trade routes
westward toward the
Mediterranean, north to modern
Armenia, east to modern Iran, and
south to Babylonia.
• 1. Assyrian kings were
regarded as the center of the
universe, chosen by the gods
as their surrogates on earth.
Kings had secular and
religious duties.
• 2. The secular duties of kings
included receiving information,
hearing and deciding on
complaints, and carrying out
diplomacy and military
leadership. The religious
duties of kings included
supervision of the state
religion, performance of public
and private rituals, and
consulting and gaining the
approval of the gods.
• 3. Assyrian kings
were celebrated
in propaganda
that was designed
to produce
feelings of awe
and fear in the
hearts of their
• Conquest and Control
• 1. At their peak, the
Assyrian armies had ½
million troops divided into
functionally specialized
units. Assyrian troops
used a variety of military
technologies, including
iron weapons, cavalry,
couriers, signal fires, and
spy networks.
• 2. Assyrian techniques of
conquest included terror
tactics and mass
deportation of civilian
• Mass deportation
served a dual
purpose: to destroy
the morale of the
enemy and to
transfer needed
laborers to the core
area of the empire.
• 3. The Assyrians found it difficult to control
their vast and diverse territory. Their level of
control varied, being more effective at the
core and less effective in the peripheral parts
of the empire.
• 4. Within the empire, the duties of
Assyrian officials were to collect tribute
and taxes, maintain law and order, raise
and provision troops, and construct and
maintain public works. The central
government included high-ranking
officials and professionals.
• 1. Assyrian society had three
major social strata: free, landowning citizens; farmers and
artisans; and slaves. The
Assyrian economy was based
on agriculture but also included
artisans and merchants.
• 2. In the realm of knowledge
and learning, the Assyrians
both preserved the knowledge • The Assyrian Empire
maintained libraries
inherited from older
that were attached to
Mesopotamian societies and
made original contributions to
temples in the cities,
mathematics and astronomy.
such as the Library of
Ashurbanipal in
2000–500 B.C.E.
• Israel, 2000–500 B.C.E.
• 1. The Israelite people were
nomadic herders and
caravan drivers who
developed a complex
sedentary agricultural
civilization. As they did so,
their cult of a desert god
evolved into an influential
monotheistic religion.
• 2. Israel’s location makes it a
crossroads for trade.
However, the area has few
natural resources.
• Origins, Exodus, and
• 1. Sources for the early
history of the Israelite people
include the Hebrew Bible,
which is based in part on oral
traditions compiled in the fifth
century B.C.E., and
archeological excavations.
• The story of Cain and Abel
• 2. Biblical accounts of the
and the stories of the
origins of the Israelite people
destruction of Sodom and
include the stories of
Gomorrah reflect the
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
tensions between the
These stories may be a
nomadic Israelite people
compressed account of the
and settled agricultural
experiences of many
generations of nomads.
Jerusalem at time of Solomon
Strategically located in the middle of lands occupied by the Israelite tribes and on a high plateau overlooking
the central hills and the Judaean desert, Jerusalem was captured around 1000 B.C.E. by King David, who
made it his capital (the City of David is at left; the citadel and palace complex at center). The next king,
Solomon, built the First Temple to serve as the center of worship of the Israelite god, Yahweh. Solomon's
Temple (at upper right) was destroyed during the Neo-Babylonian sack of the city in 587 B.C.E. The modest
structure soon built to take its place was replaced by the magnificent Second Temple, erected by King Herod
in the last decades of the first century B.C.E. and destroyed by the Romans in 70 C.E. (Ritmeyer
Archaeological Design)
• 3. The Biblical account of the Egyptian
captivity is not confirmed by Egyptian
sources but may be linked to the rise and
fall of the Hyksos rulers of Egypt.
• The period of Israelite slavery according to
the Bible corresponds to the period of
large-scale construction projects under
Sethos I and Ramesses II, while the
Biblical account of the exodus may reflect
the memories of a migration from Egypt
and nomadic life in the Sinai.
• 4. The cult of Yahweh with its exclusive
devotion to one god developed during the
period of nomadism in the Sinai.
• 5. The Biblical account of Israelite
settlement in the land of Canaan
says that Joshua led the Israelites
into Canaan and destroyed Jericho
and other Canaanite cities.
• The archeological evidence of
what probably happened is that
the nomadic Israelite tribes settled
in the hills of Canaan, where they
were joined by other groups and
• 1. Wars with the Philistines brought
about the need for a strong central
government. Saul, the first king,
established the Israelite monarchy.
David, the second king, completed the
transition to monarchy.
• 2. The Israelite monarchy reached the
height of its power in the reign of King
Solomon, who forged alliances and
sponsored trade. Solomon also
expanded the bureaucracy and the
army, and built the first temple in
Jerusalem. The temple priesthood
• 4. Israelite people lived in extended families and practiced
arranged marriage. Monogamy was the norm. Men were
allowed to have extramarital relations; women were not.
• 5. In early Israel, women enjoyed relative equality with their
husbands in social life, but at the same time, they suffered
certain legal disadvantages: women could not inherit property,
nor could they initiate divorce. The main occupations of women
were bearing and raising children, maintaining the household,
and engaging in agriculture or herding. As society became
more urbanized, some women began to work outside the home
in a variety of occupations.
• 6. There are some records of women exercising political
influence. Examples include the story of Deborah and
references to “wise women.” However, the status of women
declined during the period of monarchy.
• Fragmentation and Dispersal
• 1. After Solomon, Israel divided into two kingdoms: Israel in the north
(capital: Samaria), and Judah in the south (capital: Jerusalem). The two
kingdoms were sometimes at peace with each other and sometimes
• 2. There were some significant religious developments during the period
of fragmentation. The concept of monotheism was sharpened, but at the
same time, some Israelites were attracted to the worship of Canaanite
• 3. Political developments during the period of fragmentation include the
Assyrian destruction of the northern kingdom (Israel) in 721 B.C.E. and
the fall of the southern kingdom (Judah) to the Babylonian monarch
Nebuchadnezzar in 587 B.C.E. Nebuchadnezzar deported a large
number of Jewish elites and craftspeople to Babylon. This was the
beginning of the Jewish Diaspora.
• 4. During the Diaspora, the Jewish people developed institutions to
preserve Jewish religion and culture. These developments continued
even after some of the Babylonian Jews were permitted to return to
Jerusalem. Developments of the Diaspora included a stronger
commitment to monotheism, strict dietary rules, and veneration of the
Phoenicia and the
1200–500 B.C.E.
Phoenicia and the Mediterranean,
1200–500 B.C.E.
• The Phoenician City-States
• 1. The Phoenicians were the descendants of
the ancient inhabitants of Syria, Lebanon, and
Israel who were pushed into the strip of land
between the mountains and the sea in
modern Lebanon by about 1100 B.C.E.
There, the Phoenicians established a number
of small city-states that were deeply involved
in commerce. They also invented the first
alphabetical writing system.
• 2. The major Phoenician city-states were
Byblos, Berytus, Sidon, and Tyre.
Carthage’s Commercial Empire
• 1. The city of Carthage was established on a narrow
promontory near modern Tunis around 814 B.C.E. The
walled city was governed by two judges selected from
upperclass families and by a senate that was
dominated by the leading merchant families.
• 2. The navy was the most important arm of
Carthaginian power. Citizens served as rowers and
navigators of the fast, maneuverable warships.
• 3. Carthaginian foreign policy and military activity were
in the service of trade and were deployed in enforcing
a commercial monopoly in the Mediterranean and
developing new trading opportunities. Carthaginian
merchants were active around the Mediterranean and
traded with sub-Saharan Africa, along the Atlantic
coasts of Spain and France, and with Cornwall.
• War and Religion
• 1. The Carthaginians made no attempt to build a
territorial empire; their empire was an empire of
trade routes and ports. The Carthaginian military
was subordinate to the civilian government and
consisted of mercenary soldiers commanded by
Carthaginian officers.
• 2. Carthaginian religion involved the worship of
capricious gods that needed to be appeased by
sacrifice, including the sacrifice of Carthaginian
children. The Greeks and Romans thought that the
Carthaginians were a hard, gloomy people who
treated their subjects harshly.
Tophet of Carthage
Here, from the seventh to second centuries B.C.E., the cremated bodies of sacrificed children
were buried. Archaeological excavation has confirmed the claim in ancient sources that the
Carthaginians sacrificed children to their gods at times of crisis. Stone markers, decorated with
magical signs and symbols of divinities as well as family names, were placed over ceramic urns
containing the ashes and charred bones of one or more infants or, occasionally, older children
(Martha Cooper/Peter Arnold, Inc.)
The Aegean World
2000–1100 B.C.E.
Mycenaean Greece
1 Greek City State
(1600 – 1100 B.C.)
• Cultures of the Mountains
and the Sea
Geography Shapes Greek
The roots of Greek culture are
based on interaction
of the Mycenaean, Minoan,
and Dorian cultures.
• Ancient Greece
• Collection of separate lands
where Greek-speaking
people live
• Includes mainland and about
2,000 islands
• The sea shapes Greek
• Proximity to sea, lack of
resources encourage sea
travel and trade
• The Land
• Mountains slow travel, divide land
into regions
• Lack of fertile land leads to small
populations, need for colonies
• The Climate
• Moderate climate promotes
outdoor life
• Greek men, especially, spend
much of their time outside
• Mycenaean Civilization
• Origins: Mycenaeans—
Indo-Europeans who
settled on Greek mainland
in 2000 B.C.
• Took their name from their
leading city, Mycenae
• Mycenaean warrior-kings
dominate Greece from
1600–1100 B.C.
• Contact with Minoans
• After 1500 B.C.,
Mycenaeans adopt Minoan
sea trade and culture
• Minoan Civilization (2700
– 1450 B.C.) Island of
• King Minos, the Palace of
• 2 theories about how they
died out (1450 B.C.).
• 1. Tidal wave when Thera
• 2. Invasion of Mycenaeans.
• Mycenae: 1st Greek City State
(1600 – 1100 B.C.)
• Alliance of powerful
monarchies, with walled
capitals. Warrior culture: a lot
of murals show hunting and
fighting. Trade items have
been found throughout the
• 1. The Mycenaean Greek
people are thought to be
descended from a
combination of an indigenous
population and Indo-European
invaders. The civilization
developed suddenly around
1600 B.C.E.
2. First known through
The Iliad and The
Odyssey, the
existence of
Mycenaean civilization
was proved by the
• Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae in
southern Greece. He and other archeologists
have discovered shaft graves, gold and silver
jewelry, a palace complex, and other artifacts.
• 3. Greek legends explain Mycenaean civilization as being
the result of immigration from Phoenicia or the liberation of
the Greeks from Minoan. There is no archeological
evidence to back up these legendary accounts. The
evidence does indicate, however, that Mycenaean
civilization was influenced by Minoan civilization and that
the Mycenaeans rose to power on profits from trade and
• 4. Mycenaean sites share
certain common
characteristics: hilltop
citadels with thick
fortification walls that
enclosed palaces and
administrative buildings.
• Typical of Mycenaean
civilization were luxuryfilled tombs for rulers,
large houses for the
aristocracy, and the use of
Linear B writing. Linear B
was an early form of
Greek that used symbols
to represent syllables.
• 5. The Mycenaean state
controlled the economy,
organizing grain agriculture
and wool production.
• We know little about the
Mycenaean political
system, religion, society, or
particular historical events.
The uniformity that is
characteristic of the
Mycenaean territory may
have been due to some
sort of political unity, or it
may have been the result
of extensive contact and
• 6. Evidence for longdistance contact and trade
includes wall paintings of
ships in Egypt and Thera
and excavated remains of
the ships themselves.
• Includes widespread
dispersal of Cretan and
Mycenaean pottery and
other goods around the
Aegean world and in the
Middle East. The evidence
indicates that Cretan
traders came first, and
were later joined and then
replaced by Mycenaeans.
• Thera: a Greek
island that had a
volcano at its center,
which violently blew •
• This caused most of
the city on Thera to
disappear, leading to
the legend of
• The Tsunami from
this may have
destroyed Knossos.
• Mycenae: 1st Greek
City State (1600 –
1100 B.C.)
• Alliance of powerful
monarchies, with
walled capitals.
• Warrior culture: a lot
of murals show
hunting and fighting.
• Trade items have
been found
throughout the
• Tholos Tombs
(beehive tombs)
Minotaur – said to guard the
labyrinth under Agamemnon’s
• Most famous of their
military exploits is the
10 year siege of Troy.
• Homer, poet, wrote
about it 400 years
later in the Illiad.
• Helen, wife of the King
of Sparta, is
kidnapped and taken
to Troy by Paris.
• She had “the face that
launched 1,000
• The Trojan War
fought by Mycenaeans
against city of Troy in
1200s B.C.
• Once thought to be
fictional, archaeological
evidence has been
• Achilles was a
mythical warrior
whose mother
dipped him in the
river Styx (that
separated the land
of the dead from
the living), holding
him by his heel.
• This made him
impervious to harm,
except his heel.
• 1300 – 1200 B.C. an
invasion by the Sea
Peoples (no clue who
they were, this is the
only way they are
referred to in the few
texts we have found)
started the Dark Age of
Greece (1100 – 750
• Population and food
• During the Dark Age
fell (climate change
writing almost
from that volcano?)
disappeared – few
records exist.
The Fall of Late Bronze Age
Dark Age of Greece (1100 – 750
• The Fall of Late Bronze Age
• 1. Old centers of civilization in the
Middle East were destroyed.
• 2. Unknown invaders (The Sea
Peoples 1300 – 1200 B.C.E. )
destroyed the Hittite kingdom.
Syria likewise fell to invasions.
• Population and food fell (climate •
change from that volcano?)
• 3. The Egyptians battled invasions
from the sea in the north and lost
control of Nubia in the south.
• 4. Mycenaean civilization fell due
to a combination of internal
decline and external aggression.
Annihilation of the trading routes
of the eastern Mediterranean
undermined the position of the
Mycenaean elite and probably led
to internal unrest and collapse.
5. Collapse of Mycenaean
civilization demonstrates the
degree to which the civilizations
of the Late Bronze Age were
interdependent; their prosperity
and their very existence relied on
the trade networks that linked
them and gave them access to
natural resources, particularly
metals. When this cosmopolitan
world collapsed, the
Mediterranean and the Middle
East entered a “Dark Age”—a
period of poverty, isolation, and
loss of knowledge.
Athens, Sparta, and the
Persian Wars
• A Unique City-State
• Sparta, isolated from much of
Greece, builds military state
• Sparta Dominates
• Around 725 B.C., Sparta
conquers Messenia
• Messenians become helots—
peasants forced to
farm the land
• Harsh rule leads to Messenian
revolt; Spartans
build stronger state Sparta’s
Government and Society
• Sparta government has four
branches; citizens elect
• Three social classes: citizens,
free noncitizens, helots—
• Spartan Daily Life
• Spartan values: duty,
strength, individuality,
discipline over freedom
• Sparta has the most powerful
army in Greece
• Males move into barracks at
age 7, train until 30, serve
until 60
• Girls receive some military
training and live hardy lives
• Girls also taught to value
service to Sparta above all
The Persian Wars
• A New Kind of Army
• Cheaper iron replaces bronze,
making arms and armor
• Leads to new kind of army;
includes soldiers from all
• Phalanx—feared by all,
• Persian army attacks Athens,
formation of soldiers with
is defeated at Marathon in
spears, shields
490 B.C.
• Battle at Marathon
• Runner Pheidippides races to
• Persian Wars—between
Athens to announce Greek
Greece and Persian
Empire—begin in Ionia
• Thermopylae and
• In 480 B.C., Persians
launch new invasion of
• Greeks are divided;
many stay neutral or
side with Persians
• Greek forces hold
Thermopylae for three
days before retreating
• Athenians defeat
Persians at sea, near
island of Salamis
• Victories at Salamis and
Plataea force Persian
• Many city-states form
Delian League and
continue to fight
• The battles between Greece and the
Persians in 480 B.C.E. was a major
turning point in history. After this
defeat, the Persians never again
pushed west.
• Remember, the culture of the Persians
will shape the entire Middle East.
• Think how your life would be different if
the Persian empire had won that battle.
• Consequences of the
Persian Wars
• New self-confidence in
Greece due to victory
• Athens emerges as
leader of Delian League
• Athens controls the
league by using force
against opponents
• League members
essentially become
provinces of Athenian
• Stage is set for a
dazzling burst of
creativity in Athens
The growth of citystates in Greece
leads to the
development of
several political
systems, including
• The City-State
• By 750 B.C. the
Greek city-state, or
polis, is the
formal government
• A polis is a city and
its surrounding
villages; 50 to
500 square miles
• Population of a city-state
is often less than 10,000
• Citizens gather in the
marketplace and
acropolis—a fortified
• Greek Political Structures
• City-states have different
forms of government
• Monarchy—rule by a king;
aristocracy—rule by nobility
• Oligarchy—rule by small
group of powerful merchants
and artisans
• Tyrants Seize Power
• Rulers and common people
clash in many city-states
• Tyrants—nobles and
wealthy citizens win support
of common people
• They seize control and rule
in the interests of ordinary
• Athens Builds a Limited
• Building Democracy
• About 621 B.C.,
democracy—rule by the
people—develops in Athens
• Nobleman, Draco,
develops legal code based
on equality of citizens
• Ruler Solon abolishes debt
slavery; Cleisthenes has
citizens make laws
• Only native-born, propertyowning males are citizens
• Athenian Education
• Schooling only for sons of
wealthy families
• Girls learn from mothers
and other female members
of household
The Greeks are credited for:
• Democracy –
Athens had this
form of
• Trial by Jury –
people would vote
guilty/innocent via
vases and stones.
• Civic Duty- citizens
need to serve.
• Mathematics – Euclid
created the basics for
• Came up with pi
• Astronomy & Astrology
• Philosophy
• Art & Architecture
• Olympics
• Emphasis on
Screw- still used
today to move
water from hard
to reach areas.
• Greek temples were
designed to honor the
polytheistic religion
(many gods).
• Temples came in 3
• 1. Doric- (smooth top,
no or small base)
• 2. Ionic- (rams horns on
top and has a base)
• 3. Corinthian- (curled
leaves on top, base)
• Athenians and
Spartans Go to War
431 B.C. city-states
Sparta and Athens at
war— Peloponnesian
• Sparta has better army,
Athens has better navy
• Plague strikes Athens in
430 B.C., kills many—
including Pericles
• Sparta and Athens sign
truce in 421 B.C.
• Sparta Gains Victory
• 415 B.C. Athens renews
war, attacks Syracruse;
is defeated in 413 B.C.
• Athens and allies
surrender to Sparta in
404 B.C.
• Philosophers Search for
• Plato—student of
Socrates; writes The
Republic —an ideal
• In 387 B.C., establishes
Athens school, the
Academy; lasts 900 years
• His writings dominate
European philosophy for
1,500 years
• Aristotle—student of
Plato; uses rules of logic
for argument
• Tutors 13-year-old
prince who becomes
• His work provides the
basis for scientific
Alexander the Great
method, still used today
• Alexander the Great
• Born in 356 B.C. in
the Kingdom of
Macedonia, north of
mainland Greece.
• Although he lived
only to the age of 32,
he ruled the largest
empire the world
had ever seen,
stretching from the
Mediterranean Sea
to the Indus River
Alexander in Thebes
• In 335 B.C., the
Greek city-state of
Thebes revolted
and declared its
independence from
Macedonian rule.
• Alexander’s army
• Alexander, went to
defeated them.
Thebes with
After the battle,
30,300 troops to
Alexander’s troops
crush the revolt.
destroyed the city.
Alexander in Persia
334 B.C., set out
to conquer the
Persian Empire,
most powerful
empire in the
ancient world.
At the Battle of Issus, Alexander’s forces
defeated the Persian army led by King
Darius III.
• After destroying the
Persian capital of
Alexander became
the ruler of the
Persian empire.
• He appointed many
Persians as
governors in his
conquered territories
and allowed the
Persians to continue
practicing their
customs and beliefs.
Alexander in Egypt
• 332 B.C., his forces
• arrived in Egypt.
They met no
resistance when
they entered the
country, the
Egyptians made
Alexander king.
• Before he left Egypt,
he founded a new
city, Alexandria.
• The Library of
Alexandria become
famous for holding
most of the
knowledge of the
Ancient World.
• Alexander in India
327 B.C. Alexander entered
• Over the next 3 years, his
troops fought many
battles to conquer Indian
• After a victory at the
Battle of the River
Hydaspes, Alexander’s
troops began the long
journey home to
• (why stop here?)
By his death in
323 B.C., in
Babylon, he had
founded over 70
cities and
established libraries
and museums
throughout his empire.
He is said to have left his empire “to the strongest,”
which led to 3 of his generals dividing his empire.
• Ptolemy: Egypt, Palestine, Phoenicia.
• Seleucus: Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria
• Lysimachus: Asia Minor and Macedonia
Hellenism- Alexander’s Legacy
• This is a term used to
describe the three
centuries between
Alexander’s Empire
and the formation of
the Roman
Empire (27 B.C.)
• During this period
Greek culture spread
from its
Mediterranean base
• eastwards to the
Indus River Valley
(India) and westwards
to the Atlantic.