Download Electrical properties - Akademik Ciamik 2010

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Electrical Properties of
the Heart
Conducting System of the Heart
1. Action
in the SA
node and
across the
wall of
from the
SA to the
AV node
Conducting System of the Heart (cont)
2. Action
potentials pass
through the
AV node and
along the AV
bundle, which
extend from
the AV node,
through the
skeleton, into
Conducting System of the Heart (cont)
3.The AV
bundle divides
into right and
left bundle
branches, and
descend to the
apex of each
ventricle along
the bundle
Conducting System of the Heart (cont)
4. Action
potentials are
carried by the
fibers from
the bundle
branches to
Action Potentials
• AP in cardiac muscle last longer than in skeletal muscle
(2 ms VS 200 – 500 ms)
• Depolarization phase followed by rapid, partial early
depolarization and then the plateau phase and ended by
final repolarization phase
• Depolarization is due to the opening of voltage-gated
Na+ channels and reaches approximately (+)20 mV
• During depolarization voltage-gated K+ channels are
closed and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (slow channels)
to begin to open
Electrical properties ……
Action Potentials (cont)
• Early repolarization occurs when voltage-gated
Na+ channels close and small voltage-gated K+
channels open
• Plateau phase occurs as voltage-gated Ca2+
channels continue to open, counter act the
potential change caused by K+ out flow
• Repolarization occurs due to closing the voltagegated Ca2+ channels and continue opening of
voltage-gated K+ channels
1. Depolarization phase. Voltage-gated Na+ channels open;
Voltage-gated K+ channels close; Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels
begin to open
2. Early repolarization and plateau phase. Voltage-gated
Na+ channels close; Some voltage-gated K+ channels open,
causing early repolarization; Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels are
open, producing the plateau by slowing further repolarization
3. Final repolarization phase. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels
close; Many voltage-gated K+ channels open
Autorhythmicity of the Cardiac Muscle
• The heart is said autorhythmic because it stimulates itself and
continue to beat even though out side the body
• SA node generate AP spontaneously at regular interval. This
AP causes voltage-gated Na+ channels in the conducting
system of the heart to open  produce AP and the cardiac
muscle cells contract
• AP in SA node resulted by reached threshold local potential
• Depolarization is produced by entering Na+ through nongated Na+ channels, decreasing permeability to K+, and
opening the voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.
• Influxes of Ca2+ into the pace maker is responsible for
depolarization phase of AP
Autorhythmicity of the Cardiac Muscle
• Most cardiac muscle respond to AP produced by SA node
• SA node control the rhythm of the heart to produce heart rate
70 – 80 beats per minute
• Some cardiac muscle (ectopic focus) can generate
spontaneous AP, which produces a heart rate 40 – 60 bpm
• Another causes of ectopic focus is blockage of the conducting
system between SA node and the other parts of he heart
• Ectopic focus can also appear when the rate of AP generation
become enhanced (injury on the plasma membrane)
SA Node Action Potential (cont)
2. Depolarization phase
• Voltage-gated Ca2+ are
• Voltage-gated K+
channels are closed
SA Node Action Potential
3. Repolarization phase
• Voltage-gated Ca2+
channels close
• Voltage-gated K+
channels open
Refractory Period of the Cardiac Muscle
• During absolute refractory period the cardiac
muscle cells is completely insensitive to further
• During relative refractory period the cells exhibit
reduced sensitivity to additional stimulation
• The plateau phase delays repolarization to RMP
 the refractory period is prolonged
• The long refractory period prevent the cardiac
muscle to becomes tetanic contraction
• The conduction of action potential through the myocardium
during the cardiac cycle produces electric currents that can be
measured at the surface of the body.
• Electrodes placed on the surface of the body and attached to
an appropriate recording device can detect small voltage
changes from action potentials in the cardiac muscle.
• The electrodes detect a summation of all the action potentials
that are transmitted through the heart at a given time.
• Electrodes do not detect individual action potentials.
• The summated record of the cardiac action potential is an
Electrocardiogram (cont)
• Each deflection in the ECG record indicates an
electrical event within the heart and correlate with a
subsequent mechanical event.
• ECG has extremely valuable diagnostic tool in
identifying a number cardiac abnormalities
• Analysis of ECG can determine abnormal heart rate or
rhythm, abnormal conduction pathways, hypertrophy
or atrophy of portion of the heart, and approximately
location of damaged cardiac muscle
ECG (cont)
• The normal ECG consists of a P
wave, QRS complex, and a T
• The P wave, which is the result
of action potentials that cause
depolarization of the atrial
myocardium, signal the onset of
atrial contraction
• The QRS complex is composed
of three individual waves: the Q,
R, and S wave. The QRS
complex results from ventricular
depolarization and signals the
onset of ventricular contraction
ECG (cont)
• The T wave represents
repolarization of the
ventricles and precedes
ventricular relaxation
• A wave represents
repolarization of the atria
cannot be seen because it
occurs during the QRS
ECG (cont)
• The time between the
beginning of the P wave
and the beginning of the
QRS complex is the PQ
interval, commonly called
PR interval because the Q
wave is often very small
• During the PR interval,
which last approximately
0.16 second, the atria
contract and begin relax
ECG (cont)
• The ventricles begin to
depolarize at the end of the
PR interval
• The QT interval extends
from the beginning of the
QRS complex to the end of
the T wave, lasts
approximately 0.36 second,
and represents the
approximate length of time
required for ventricles to
contract and begin to relax