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8
PART 1
Bones, Part 2:
The Appendicular
Skeleton
Pages 185-203
PowerPoint® Lecture Presentations prepared by
Leslie Hendon
University of Alabama, Birmingham
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Appendicular Skeleton
• Pectoral girdle
• Attaches the upper limbs to the trunk
• Pelvic girdle
• Attaches the lower limbs to the trunk
• Upper and lower limbs differ in function
• Share the same structural plan
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Pectoral Girdle
• Consists of the clavicle and the scapula
• Provides attachment for many muscles that
move the upper limb
• Girdle is very light and upper limbs are
mobile
• Only clavicle articulates with the axial
skeleton
• Socket of the shoulder joint (glenoid cavity) is
shallow
• Good for flexibility, bad for stability
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Articulated Pectoral Girdle
Acromioclavicular
joint
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Clavicle
Scapula
(a) Articulated pectoral girdle
Figure 8.1a
Clavicles
• Extend horizontally across the superior thorax
• Sternal end articulates with the manubrium
• Acromial end articulates with scapula
• Provide attachment for muscles
• Hold the scapulae and arms laterally
• Transmit compression forces from the upper
limbs to the axial skeleton
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Clavicles
Sternal (medial)
end
Posterior
Anterior
Acromial (lateral)
end
(b) Right clavicle, superior view
Acromial end
Anterior
Trapezoid line
Sternal end
Posterior
Tuberosity for
costoclavicular
ligament
(c) Right clavicle, inferior view
Conoid tubercle
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 8.1b, c
Scapulae
• Lie on the dorsal surface of the rib cage
• Located between ribs 2–7
• Have three borders
• Superior
• Medial (vertebral)
• Lateral (axillary)
• Have three angles
• Lateral, superior, and inferior
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Structures of the Scapula
Acromion
Suprascapular notch
Coracoid
process
Glenoid
cavity
Lateral border
Superior border
Superior
angle
Subscapular
fossa
Medial border
(a) Right scapula, anterior aspect
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Inferior angle
Figure 8.2a
Structures of the Scapula
Suprascapular notch
Coracoid process
Acromion
Superior
angle
Supraspinous
fossa
Spine
Glenoid
cavity
at lateral
angle
Infraspinous
fossa
Medial border
Lateral border
(b) Right scapula, posterior aspect
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 8.2b
The Upper Limb
• 30 bones form each upper limb
• Grouped into bones of the:
• Arm
• Forearm
• Hand
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Arm
• Region of the upper limb between the shoulder
and elbow
• Humerus
• The only bone of the arm
• Longest and strongest bone of the upper limb
• Articulates with the scapula at the shoulder
• Articulates with the radius and ulna at the elbow
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Arm
• Humerus
• Many structures of the humerus provide sites for
muscle attachment
• Other structures of the humerus provide
articulation sites for other bones
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Structures of the Humerus of the Right Arm
Greater tubercle
Head of humerus
Head of humerus
Anatomical neck
Anatomical neck
Greater tubercle
Lesser tubercle
Surgical neck
Intertubercular
sulcus
Radial groove
Deltoid tuberosity
Deltoid tuberosity
Medial supracondylar
ridge
Lateral supracondylar
ridge
Coronoid fossa
Olecranon fossa
Radial fossa
Capitulum
(a) Anterior view
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Medial epicondyle
Trochlea
Medial epicondyle
(b) Posterior view
Lateral epicondyle
Trochlea
Figure 8.3a, b
Structures of the Humerus of the Right Arm
Humerus
Coronoid
fossa
Capitulum
Medial
epicondyle
Head of
radius
Radial
tuberosity
Radius
(c) Anterior view at the elbow region
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Trochlea
Coronoid
process of
ulna
Radial notch
Ulna
Humerus
Olecranon
fossa
Olecranon
process
Medial
epicondyle
Lateral
epicondyle
Head
Neck
Ulna
Radius
(d) Posterior view of extended elbow
Figure 8.3c, d
Forearm
• Formed from the radius and ulna
• Proximal ends articulate with the humerus
• Distal ends articulate with carpals
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Forearm
• Radius and ulna articulate with each other
• At the proximal and distal radioulnar joints
• The interosseous membrane
• Interconnects radius and ulna
• In anatomical position; the radius is lateral and
the ulna is medial
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ulna
• Main bone responsible for forming the elbow
joint with the humerus
• Hinge joint allows forearm to bend on arm
• Distal end is separated from carpals by
fibrocartilage
• Plays little to no role in hand movement
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Proximal Part of the Ulna
Radial notch
of the ulna
Head
Neck
Radial
tuberosity
Olecranon process
Neck of radius
Coronoid process
Proximal radioulnar
joint
Ulna
Radius
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Head of radius
Trochlear notch
Interosseous
membrane
Styloid process
of radius
(a) Anterior view
Olecranon
process
Ulnar notch of
the radius
Head of ulna
Distal radioulnar joint
Styloid process of ulna
Interosseous
membrane
Ulna
Ulnar notch
of the radius
Radius
Head of ulna
Styloid process
of ulna
(b) Posterior view
Styloid process
of radius
Figure 8.4a, b
Radius and Ulna
Olecranon process
Trochlear notch
View
Coronoid process
Radial notch
(c) Proximal portion of ulna, lateral view
Ulnar notch of radius
Articulation
for lunate
Articulation
for scaphoid
Styloid
process
View
Head of
ulna
Styloid
process
(d) Distal ends of the radius and ulna at the wrist
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 8.4c, d
Radius
• Superior surface of the head of the radius
articulates with the capitulum
• Medially—the head of the radius articulates with
the radial notch of the ulna
• Contributes heavily to the wrist joint
• Distal radius articulates with carpal bones
• When radius moves, the hand moves with it
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Radius and Ulna
Humerus
Coronoid
fossa
Capitulum
Medial
epicondyle
Head of
radius
Radial
tuberosity
Radius
(c) Anterior view at the elbow region
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Trochlea
Coronoid
process of
ulna
Radial notch
Ulna
Humerus
Olecranon
fossa
Olecranon
process
Medial
epicondyle
Lateral
epicondyle
Head
Neck
Ulna
Radius
(d) Posterior view of extended elbow
Figure 8.3c, d
Hand
• Includes the following bones
• Carpus—wrist
• Metacarpals—palm
• Phalanges—fingers
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Carpus
• Forms the true wrist—the proximal region of the
hand
• Gliding movements occur between carpals
• Composed of eight marble-sized bones
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Carpus
• Carpal bones
• Are arranged in two irregular rows
• Proximal row from lateral to medial
• Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrium, and pisiform
• Distal row from lateral to medial
• Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate
• A mnemonic to help remember carpals:
• Sally left the party to take Carmen home
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Bones of the Hand
Phalanges
Distal
Middle
Proximal
Carpals
Hamate
Capitate
Pisiform
Triquetrum
Lunate
Ulna
5
4 3 2
Sesamoid
bones
1
Carpals
Trapezium
Trapezoid
Scaphoid
Radius
(a) Anterior view of right hand
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Metacarpals
Head
Shaft
Base
1
2
3
4 5
Carpals
Hamate
Capitate
Triquetrum
Lunate
Ulna
(b) Posterior view of right hand
Figure 8.6a, b
Metacarpus
• Five metacarpals radiate distally from the wrist
• Metacarpals form the palm
• Numbered 1–5, beginning with the pollex
(thumb)
• Articulate proximally with the distal row of
carpals
• Articulate distally with the proximal phalanges
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Phalanges
• Except for the thumb, each finger has three
phalanges
• Proximal, middle, and distal
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 8-1 Bones of the Upper Limb (1 of 3)
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 8-1 Bones of the Upper Limb (2 of 3)
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pelvic Girdle
• Attaches lower limbs to the spine
• Supports visceral organs
• Attaches to the axial skeleton by strong
ligaments
• Acetabulum is a deep cup that holds the head
of the femur
• Lower limbs have less freedom of movement
• Are more stable than the arm
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pelvic Girdle
• Consists of paired hip bones (coxal bones)
• Hip bones unite anteriorly with each other
• Articulates posteriorly with the sacrum
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
Base of sacrum
Iliac crest
Iliac fossa
llium
Coxal
bone
(os coxae
or hip
Pubis
bone)
Sacrum
Coccyx
Ischium
(a) Pelvic girdle
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pubic arch
Sacroiliac
joint
Anterior
superior
iliac spine
Sacral
promontory
Anterior
inferior iliac
spine
Pelvic brim
Acetabulum
Pubic
tubercle
Pubic crest
Pubic
symphysis
Figure 8.7a
The Pelvic Girdle
• Consists of three separate bones in childhood
• Ilium, ischium, and pubis
• Bones fuse, retain separate names to regions
of the coxal bones
• Acetabulum
• A deep hemispherical socket on lateral pelvic
surface
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ilium
• Large, flaring bone
• Forms the superior region of the coxal bone
• Site of attachment for many muscles
• Articulation with the sacrum forms sacroiliac
joint
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
Base of sacrum
Iliac crest
Iliac fossa
llium
Coxal
bone
(os coxae
or hip
Pubis
bone)
Sacrum
Coccyx
Ischium
(a) Pelvic girdle
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pubic arch
Sacroiliac
joint
Anterior
superior
iliac spine
Sacral
promontory
Anterior
inferior iliac
spine
Pelvic brim
Acetabulum
Pubic
tubercle
Pubic crest
Pubic
symphysis
Figure 8.7a
Ischium
• Forms posteroinferior region of the coxal bone
• Anteriorly—joins the pubis
• Ischial tuberosities
• Are the strongest part of the hip bone
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pubis
• Forms the anterior region of the coxal bone
• Lies horizontally in anatomical position
• Pubic symphysis
• The two pubic bones are joined by fibrocartilage
at the midline
• Pubic arch—inferior to the pubic symphysis
• Angle helps distinguish male from female pelves
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Lateral and Medial Views of the Hip Bone
Tubercle of
the iliac crest
Ilium
Ilium
Iliac crest
Iliac crest
Anterior
superior
iliac spine
Anterior
superior
iliac spine
Ala
Anterior gluteal
line
Iliac fossa
Posterior
gluteal line
Posterior
superior
iIiac spine
Posterior inferior
iliac spine
Greater sciatic
notch
Ischial body
Inferior
gluteal line
Anterior inferior Anterior inferior
iliac spine
iliac spine
Arcuate
Acetabulum
line
Superior ramus
of pubis
Ischial spine
Pubic tubercle
Lesser sciatic
notch
Ischium
Ilium
Ischium
Pubis
Pubic body
Pubis
Ischial
tuberosity
Ischial ramus
(b) Lateral view, right hip bone
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Inferior ramus
of pubis
Articular surface of
pubis (at pubic
symphysis)
Inferior ramus
of pubis
Posterior
superior
iliac spine
Posterior
inferior
iliac spine
Body of
the ilium
Auricular
surface
Ischial spine
Obturator
foramen
Ischium
Ischial ramus
(c) Medial view, right hip bone
Figure 8.7b, c
True and False Pelves
• Bony pelvis is divided into two regions
• False (greater) pelvis—bounded by alae of the
iliac bones
• True (lesser) pelvis—inferior to pelvic brim
• Forms a bowl containing the pelvic organs
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
True and False Pelves
Plane through
midpelvis
Anterior
abdominal
wall
False
pelvis
Pelvic brim,
defining
pelvic inlet
Symphyseal
surface
True
pelvis
Coccyx
Plane of pelvic outlet
(b) True and false pelves
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 8.8b
Pelvic Structures and Childbearing
• Major differences between male and female
pelves
• Female pelvis is adapted for childbearing
• Pelvis is lighter, wider, and shallower than in the
male
• Provides more room in the true pelvis
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Female and Male Pelves
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 8.2 (1 of 2)
Female and Male Pelves
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 8.2 (2 of 2)
The Lower Limb
• Carries the entire weight of the erect body
• Bones of lower limb are thicker and stronger
than those of upper limb
• Divided into three segments
• Thigh, leg, and foot
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thigh
• The region of the lower limb between the hip
and the knee
• Femur—the single bone of the thigh
• Longest and strongest bone of the body
• Ball-shaped head articulates with the
acetabulum
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Structures of the Femur
Fovea
capitis
Head
Neck
Lesser trochanter
Intertrochanteric
line
Gluteal tuberosity
Greater
trochanter
Intertrochanteric
crest
Linea aspera
Medial and
lateral supracondylar lines
Intercondylar fossa
Lateral
condyle
Lateral
epicondyle
Medial condyle
Lateral
epicondyle
(b) Femur (thigh bone)
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Patellar
surface
Adductor tubercle
Medial
epicondyle
Anterior view
Posterior view
Figure 8.9b
Leg
• Refers to the region of the lower limb between
the knee and the ankle
• Composed of the tibia and fibula
• Tibia—more massive medial bone of the leg
• Receives weight of the body from the femur
• Fibula—stick-like lateral bone of the leg
• Interosseous membrane
• Connects the tibia and fibula
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Leg
• Tibia articulates with femur at superior end
• Forms the knee joint
• Tibia articulates with talus at the inferior end
• Forms the ankle joint
• Fibula does not contribute to the knee joint
• Stabilizes the ankle joint
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Structures of the Tibia and Fibula
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 8.10a, b
The Foot
• Foot is composed of
• Tarsus, metatarsus, and the phalanges
• Important functions
• Supports body weight
• Acts as a lever to propel body forward when
walking
• Segmentation makes foot pliable and adapted to
uneven ground
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Tarsus
• Makes up the posterior half of the foot
• Contains seven bones called tarsals
• Body weight is primarily borne by the talus and
calcaneus
• Trochlea of the talus
• Site of articulation with the tibia
• Other tarsals are:
• Cuboid and navicular
• Medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Bones of the Foot
Phalanges
Distal
Middle
Proximal
1
Medial
cuneiform
2
3 4
Metatarsals
5
Intermediate
cuneiform
Lateral
cuneiform
Navicular
Cuboid
Tarsals
Talus
Trochlea
of talus
Calcaneus
(a) Superior view
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 8.11a
Metatarsus
• Consists of five small long bones called
metatarsals
• Numbered 1–5 beginning with the hallux
(great toe)
• First metatarsal supports body weight
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Bones of the Foot
Phalanges
Distal
Middle
Proximal
1
Medial
cuneiform
2
3 4
Metatarsals
5
Intermediate
cuneiform
Lateral
cuneiform
Navicular
Cuboid
Tarsals
Talus
Trochlea
of talus
Calcaneus
(a) Superior view
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 8.11a
Phalanges of the Toes
• 14 phalanges of the toes
• Smaller and less nimble than those of the
fingers
• Structure and arrangement are similar to
phalanges of fingers
• Except for the great toe, each toe has three
phalanges
• Proximal, middle, and distal
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Bones of the Foot
Facet for
lateral malleolus
Navicular
Intermediate cuneiform
Lateral cuneiform
Talus
Calcaneus
Cuboid
Fifth metatarsal
(c) Lateral view
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 8.11c
Table 8-3 Bones of the Lower Limbs (1 of 3)
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 8-3 Bones of the Lower Limbs (2 of 3)
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 8-3 Bones of the Lower Limbs (3 of 3)
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.