Download Arch of Titus

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Roman army of the late Republic wikipedia , lookup

Senatus consultum ultimum wikipedia , lookup

Leges regiae wikipedia , lookup

Ancient Roman architecture wikipedia , lookup

Culture of ancient Rome wikipedia , lookup

Early Roman army wikipedia , lookup

Cursus honorum wikipedia , lookup

Roman historiography wikipedia , lookup

Roman agriculture wikipedia , lookup

Rome (TV series) wikipedia , lookup

History of the Roman Constitution wikipedia , lookup

History of the Constitution of the Roman Empire wikipedia , lookup

Titus wikipedia , lookup

So far we have studied:
 Portraiture
Patrician carrying busts
Philip the Arabian
 Religious Architecture
Ara Pacis
Maison Caree
Bacchus at Baalbek
Now this is:
Relief Sculpture
Arch of Titus
AD 81
But first...a list of Emperors
Julio-Claudian dynasty
Augustus 27BC- AD14
Tiberius AD14 - 37
Caligula AD37 – 41
Claudius AD 41- 54
Nero AD54- 68
Year of 4 emperors
(AD 68 –AD69)
Flavian Dynasty
Vespasian AD69-79
Titus AD79-81
Domitian AD 81-96
Trajanic Dynasty
Nerva AD96-98
Trajan AD98-117
Hadrian AD117-138
Antonine Dynasty
Antoninus Pius AD138-161
Marcus Aurelius AD161- 180
Lucis Verus AD161-169
Commodus AD177-192
Severan dynasty
(11 emperors)
Emperors during the height
of crisis AD 235-268
 Philip the Arabian
Many others (constant
Vocab list
Pylons – 2 outside pillars of an arch
Vault – circular central part of an arch
Posthumous – after death
Fasces – bundles of birch rods surrounding
an axe
Keystone (highlight in your glossary)
Spandrels (highlight in your glossary)
Apotheosis – becoming a god
Workbooks, p.45
Location: The Via Sacra (Sacred Way) in Rome
Architectural type: Arch
Inscription: The senate and people of Rome, To
divine Titus Vespasian Augustus, Son of Divine
Purpose: To celebrate Titus’ defeat of the Jews and
destruction of Jerusalem and its temple in AD 7o
Dates of Construction: Constructed and dedicated as
a posthumous (after death) monument in AD81, by
Titus brother and successor Domitian
Construction materials: pentallic marble
Dimensions:15m high & 12m wide
Exterior columns
Are unfluted
Interior columns
are fluted
Relief of Apotheosis
(Titus on an eagle)
The architrave is supported by a
Projecting key stone, which has been
Carved into a scroll. The scroll is
decorated on One side of the
monument with the figure
Of Roma & on the other with
the figure of Fortuna.
“It is elegant in its simplicity. A single gateway stands crowned by
An entablature and attic storey.”
The spandrels are decorated in a relief
of the winged Goddess of Victory
flying through the air, carrying
A battle trophy. (A common motif
In Roman art)
The Frieze is carved in high relief,
& depicts a procession of figures
Leading sacrificial animals (possibly
Represents the Arch’s inauguration
Apotheosis of Titus
This scene is placed on the centre
of the Coffered vault, over the
main passage. Depicts Titus
being carried heavenward on
The back of a large eagle.
The triumph is
recorded on a pair
of relief panels that
decorate the
interior walls of the
Each is a
narrative which
represents a
section of the
events from the
triumphal parade
of AD71
The South panel
depicts Rome’s
triumphant soldiers
shouldering the
sacred objects
taken from the
of Jerusalem after the
The upper portion of the panel has placards being
paraded by soldiers (a common feature of all triumphal
arch ‘Porta
processions) they were inscribed with highlights of the campaign
Menorah (Jewish 7 branched candle-stick)
held by
Arc of the
Trumpets of
2m high
Knees bent the weight
of the plunder,
Emphasising the amount
& therefore the victory
The heads bob up
Irregularly showing
Business, liveliness and
The south panel
The soldiers wear only tunics and laurel
wreaths because it was tradition that before
entering Rome, they had to leave their
weapons outside the city walls.
The stretches held above the soldier’s heads,
are raised above eye level, they are framed
against an empty background and the viewer’s
eye is drawn straight to them.
The most prominent feature of this relief is the
men holding the menorah, so much attention to
detail, that they use pillows on their shoulders
to help ease the burden
innovative treatment of perspective & illusion of
depth and space.
The figures standing closest to the viewer are
carved in High relief, those at the back lie very
The marching soldiers appear to come from the
left hand side of the panel, arc out towards the
viewer & turn to enter the gateway
The north panel
Emperor Titus depicted at rear of parade as Triumphator
(Triumphant general).
He is led through the city by personifications of the virtues
most admired by Romans.
Background filled with
Fasces, Traditionally carried by
emperor’s attendants called
The winged goddess Victory crowns
Titus with a Laurel Wreath
Quadriga (4 horse chariot)
Lead by Roma (warlike
Personification of Rome)
Figures either side of the chariot
Genius Populi Romani (Guardian
Spirit of Roman people) shown
Nude to the waist &
Genius Senatus (Guardian of
Spirit of the Senate) in toga
South panel
Depiction of Titus travelling Through mix of
human & semi Divine figures was innovative for
its time
It is as if the procession is swinging around a
corner, the relief is carved deeper in the centre
to create the image of the horses coming
toward the viewer
Head of Titus is missing, would have been a
portrait carved separately & added to relief.
To emphasise him, he is placed high above the
ground against empty background – similar to
highlighting spoils from the Jerusalem
*Interesting facts
Its current appearance is the result of much
restoration during the 19th century.
The arch had once been incorporated into a medieval
fortress as part of its defences and a chamber was
built into the vault of the arch – the large holes that
held its support beams are still in the reliefs of the
central passage
Inscription was once in bronze, the latin phrase
“Senatus Populusque Romanus” or ‘SPQR’ translates
to ‘the senate and people of Rome’, is a common
feature of Roman monuments.
Top of the arch once had a bronze statue of a
quadriga on it