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Comparative Vertebrate
An overview of digestion
Feeding strategies
Filter feeders
Marine mammals and birds
Feeding strategies
Seizing of prey
Why have a digestive tract?
Unicellular animals digest intracellularly
Limits size of prey
Each cell must be designed to undertake digestion
Extracellular (vertebrates)
Allows the ability to feed on larger prey
Only certain cells can digest
Anatomical areas
Headgut (mouth, pharynx)
Foregut (esophagus, stomach)
Midgut (small intestine)
Hindgut (colon)
1. Ingestion – mouth
2. Motility
Maintain muscle tone
A. Propulsive movement: unidirectional
B. Mixing movement: bidirectional
3. Digestion
• Mechanical
Mouth (chewing), stomach (churning), small intestine
• Chemical
Passage across plasma membranes
Carbohydrates: tri-, disaccharides to monoProteins: into amino acids
Fats: monoglycerides and fatty acids
4. Secretion
Mouth, stomach, liver, pancreas, small intestine
5. Absorption
80% in the duodenum, rest in small and large intestine
6. Elimination of wastes
Accessory glands
Salivary glands
Moisten, lubricate, breakdown saccharides
Enzymes secreted into duodenum
Neutralizes stomach acid, breakdown fats
Gall bladder
Store of bile
Intestinal villi and microvilli