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In order to meet the ever increasing demand by people using mobile technology and its
associated service based on multimedia elements in addition to voice, mobile
communication technologies has since evolved from analog to digital and 1G to 4G.
Therefore, we should take the challenge to combine mobile communications with the
Internet, and develop it into a mobile multimedia service, which can handle not only
voice and data but also image communications. 3.1G to 3G mobile communication
technologies are mainly optimized for voice communication, using circuit switched
networks. To provide high transmission mobile services at low cost in all levels of
networks - personal, home, and cellular—it is imminent to exploit the merits of all
existing technologies such as Bluetooth, WLAN, and Hyperlink, and use IP as a
backbone network in 4G mobile communication standards.
Multimedia refers to the combination of different types of media elements such as text,
audio, image, provides the interaction facility to users.
Text comprises a string of alphabets from a particular character set. Image is a
visual object consisting of a rectangular pattern of dots or primitive elements lines,
curves, circles, and so on (Halsall, 2001). Multimedia communications are projected from
1Mbps to 30Gbps for 3D audio and 3D video (Ohya & Miki, 2005.
Generation of multimedia mobile communication:
The first mobile telephone standard was introduce by AT&T in St. Louis, Missouri, USA,
and was available for public users of this city in 1946.
The mobile system was installed on the top of a building in the metropolitan area.
All users received their services through this system with a mobile operator, who routed
both incoming and outgoing calls to the intended recipients
First generation of mobile communication:
 The analog cellular technologies were designed and completed by AT&T in 1974
and commercialized in the 1980s.
 It played a vital role to increase popularity of mobile phone and the mobile users
at 30 to 50% per year, which contributed to approximately 20 million users
within 1990
 AMP is the first analog cellular system, which was designed and developed by
AT&T in 1970s
 It was one of the revolutionary achievements in Mobile communication
 AMPS uses 12 or 7-group cell patterns.
 AMPS uses the frequency division multiple accesses (FDMA) for voice channels
and operates in 800-900 MHz.
 AMPS has encrypt and decrypt messages, and therefore, any one can intercept
the call through a handheld radio frequency scanner
Second generation:
In second generation digital cellular communication standards called 2G cellular mobile
communication standards.
 Digital encoding in 2Gstanadards are done by providing small data transmission
in addition to voice communication.
 It also provides short messaging and service (SMS) and enhanced messaging
service (EMS).
Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)
The technical specification of GSM was completed in 1990 and it was commercially
launched in 1991 from Finland.
The popularity of GSM was due
 GSM is based on a open system architecture.
 GSM first introduced for SMS text messaging and pre-paid accounts.
 It can provide a good moderate level security.
 The cost is low.
 It can provide international roaming
General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) for providing the facilities
of a data network Internet.
 It allows GSM users to receive both voice and extra data service mainly Internet
browsing, e-mail, file and data transfer, and so forth.
 Accessing both voice and data depends on the types of Capabilities Class A,
Class B, and Class C.
 Class A provides the simultaneous access of both voice and packet data services.
 Class B provides voice and packet data services one at time with a higher priority
given to voice.
 Class C requires manual switching between voice and packet data by an operator
(Wikipedia, 2006Andersson, 2001).
Third Generation (3G) cellular Mobile Networks
3G is a modern day mobile platform that has replaced the existing 2G standards.
The features of 3G articulated by IMT2000 include hierarchical cell structure, global
roaming, and an expanding radio spectrum.
 The most influential application for 3G was predicted to be video calling.
 Applications for 3G are video telephony(video conferencing), video streaming,
remote wireless surveillance, multimedia real-time gaming, video on demand.
Global Roaming
The third generation wireless networks begin to implement terminal and personal
mobility as well as service provider portability.
 Terminal mobility is the ability of a network to forward a call to a mobile terminal
irrespective of its attachment point to the network.
 This level of global mobility freedom will be dependent on the coordination of a
wide range of service providers to build a compatible backbone network and have
strong agreements and cost structure.
Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC)
Fixed-mobile convergence (FMC) is based on the use of dual-mode handsets. It is a
broad area.
Key characteristics of FMC include:
 Convergence of desk phone with mobile;
 Mobile convergence integrated with VoIP over the PABX;
 Functional transparency (address book, message bank, caller redirection, etc.)
 Cost savings by organisation and clients.
Mobile tv:
Mobile TV poses no direct benefit for the firms—companies are concerned it will be a
distraction to the employees rather than a benefit. Mobile TV is targeted towards the
mass audience rather than companies.
Fourth Generation (4G) cellular Mobile Networks:
Fourth generation mobile networks have been targeted to develop as IP-core
heterogeneous networks. The service of any networks ranging from body area to global
communication networks including ad-hoc, sensors, and intelligent home appliances.
Key Challenges of a Network System:
 Terminal Mobility
 Adaptive and Light Weight Security System
 Personal Mobil
Mobile Multimedia Today:
Multimedia network allows 384Kbps packet switch connection for down link and
64Kbps circuit connection that is N-ISDN compatible.
e-mail : This is one of killer applications regardless of mobile network generations. You
can send e-mail to other mobile phones and to anyone who has an Internet e-mail address,
and receive e-mail vice versa.
The two major points are
 It costs less than 1 cent
 Interoperability
Web Browsing :
The legacy 2G network has allowed mainly text-based HTML browsing with some
small graphics. In enhanced 2G and 3G networks, JPEG was adopted and commonly
used in mobile web browsing.
Video clip Download :
The 3G service, dubbed ”i-motion” will enable users to obtain video content at speeds of
up to 384 kbps .
 Movie trailers, news highlights and music files are enhanced.
Technology Research Trends
The ultimate goal of mobile multimedia technology development is heterogeneous access
networks .
The word ”Hyper” is to signify a coherent set of characterizing concepts:
 Seamlessness in mobile.
 Heterogeneity in wireless access networks.
 backbone networks
 mobile terminals
Heterogeneous Network as Future Mobile Network.
Multimedia mails in which cell phones eventually will be equipped with 1M pixel CCD
built-in cameras and VGA full color displays. Future generations of wireless networks
will provide virtually unlimited opportunities to the global, connected community. In that
context, we have discussed the future direction with three key words: hyper operator
network, mobile content, and seamless service, in which mobility support, AAA,
environment/delivery context representation and adaptation mechanism are identified as
key technologies