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Transcript
JULIUS CAESAR
I CAME, I SAW, I CONQUERED
TIMELINE SO FAR…
 509 – The Beginning of the Roman Republic
 264 – First Punic War
 201 - Hannibal Barca def. at Battle of Zama (2nd Punic War)
 146 – Carthage destroyed in Third Punic War
 100 – THE BIRTH OF JULIUS CAESAR
 71 – Spartacus rebellion defeated.
 44 – THE DEATH OF JULIUS CAESAR
ORIGINS
 Claimed ancestor of Aeneas himself
 From a rich Patrician family…
 Why Caesar?
 Born by Caesarian section?
 Because of his thick head of hair?
 Because of his bright eyes?
 Because he killed an elephant in Battle?
BAD START…
 Politics in Rome were a bloody mess (literally), Sulla gave
himself the role of dictator and had all his political
enemies assassinated
 Caesar was a target and fled Rome…
 Eventually kidnapped and taken prisoner by pirates…
 Eventually he escapes and crucifies all of them as
promised…
 Thankfully Caesar, Sulla dies and JC can return to
Rome…
BACK ON TRACK
 Known as an excellent orator and public speaker, openly
rips members of the senate and government
 Elected Military Tribune
 Elected Quaestor – 63 BC
 Elected Praetor
 The birth of political smear campaigns? Accuses the more
experienced candidates of bribery and treason and
convinces the voters of it and he wins the job.
RISE COTINUES…
 Gets the support of the richest man in Rome – our old
friend Marcus Crassus in exchange for his support
against Pompey
 Pompey & Crassus are the 2 most powerful men at the
time and hate each other
 Elected Governor of Spain
 Elected as Consul of Rome (as high as it gets)
RESOLUTION
 Caesar convinces
enemies Pompey and
Crassus that with
their wealth and
public favor they can
essentially control
everything in the
Senate and in Rome
 They hug it out
FIRST TRIUMVATE
 “Triumvirate” = The Rule of 3 Men
JULIUS CAESAR
POMPEY
CRASSUS
GALLIC WARS
 Pretty much appoints himself to Govern Gaul
 How long is a term in office in Roman Republic?
 Caesar gets 5 years.
 Why?
 Debt – sees Gaul as a source of income
 Motivation – Alexander the Great?
GAUL
 Modern Day France & Northern
Italy
 Previously unconquered land
 Home of “Barbarian” Germanic
Tribes
 Caesar pushes into Britain &
Germany
GALLIC WARS
 Caesar fights many battles
with many different tribes
 The lack of unity amongst
the tribes proves to be their
downfall
 Caesar’s 5 years are
up…they extend him for 5
more.
VERCINGETORIX
 Gallic General unites a
bunch of the tribes in a
large rebellion vs.
Caesar
 Culminates at the
BATTLE OF ALESIA
GAUL DEFEATED
 51 BC – Rome is in complete control of Gaul
FURTHER EXPANSION
 Caesar attempts several campaigns into modern day
Britain & Germany but is defeated or can’t sustain the
progress
 Plans to go back…
JULIUS CAESAR
 BUT!!!!....
POMPEY
CRASSUS
CIVIL WAR
 POMPEY: Your term as consul is up, come back to Rome
 CAESAR: Forget that, I know I’ll be persecuted
 POMPEY: You refuse to come back? TREASON!
 CAESAR: Fine I’ll come back .
 CAESAR crosses the Rubicon river with his legions, seen as a threat
to invade Rome and attack Pompey
CIVIL WAR
 Pompey flees to Spain
 In Rome, Caesar appoints himself dictator and names
Marc Antony his right hand man.
 Caesar then makes himself win an election to be consul
again and resigns title of Dictator
 Chases Pompey all the way to Spain where Pompey is
murdered.
ROMANCE
 While in Egypt he falls in love with Cleopatra
 Caesar conquers Egypt and names Cleopatra as ruler.
 Conquers Egypt so easily that he mocks Pompey who
struggled there as a general for years.
 Chases Pompey’s son around the Mediterranean, defeats
them
 Named Dictator for 10 years – Republic my left foot!
REFORMS UNDER
CAESAR
 Conquered: France, Egypt, Spain
 Elaborate Gladiatorial Games (Later…)
 More Children = More $$$ (Repopulate Italy)
 Added 3 months to 46BC to bring the calendar in
alignment with the seasons and added a leap year every
4th year (almost identical to our calendar)
 Rebuild Carthage & Corinth
 Made a police force
PROTECT HIS POWER
 CAESAR: “I have the ability to appoint whoever I want
as magistrates so when I go conquering elsewhere you
guys can’t screw me over again.”
 Before Caesar can leave the senate calls one last meeting
to talk about some potential reforms…
Et tu, Brute?
 The Senators surround Caesar and each stab him, he was
stabbed in total 23 times
 SHAKESPEARE: Caesar sees one of his trusted allies
Brutus amongst the killers and utters “and you Brutus?”
in disbelief
 REALITY: Unknown.
 PEOPLE OF ROME, WE ARE NOW FREE!
Ides of March
 March 15th 44BC
SUMMARY
 Born into a wealthy family which had fallen on hard times.
 Worked his way up the political ladder securing powerful
allies.
 Spent 10 years conquering Gaul to help pay his debts
 Returned with legions into Rome to ignite a civil war
 Defeated his Roman enemies declaring himself dictator for
life
 Assassination leads to the fall of the Roman Republic
LEGACY?
 Would you give Caesar control of your army?