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JULIUS CAESAR I CAME, I SAW, I CONQUERED TIMELINE SO FAR… 509 – The Beginning of the Roman Republic 264 – First Punic War 201 - Hannibal Barca def. at Battle of Zama (2nd Punic War) 146 – Carthage destroyed in Third Punic War 100 – THE BIRTH OF JULIUS CAESAR 71 – Spartacus rebellion defeated. 44 – THE DEATH OF JULIUS CAESAR ORIGINS Claimed ancestor of Aeneas himself From a rich Patrician family… Why Caesar? Born by Caesarian section? Because of his thick head of hair? Because of his bright eyes? Because he killed an elephant in Battle? BAD START… Politics in Rome were a bloody mess (literally), Sulla gave himself the role of dictator and had all his political enemies assassinated Caesar was a target and fled Rome… Eventually kidnapped and taken prisoner by pirates… Eventually he escapes and crucifies all of them as promised… Thankfully Caesar, Sulla dies and JC can return to Rome… BACK ON TRACK Known as an excellent orator and public speaker, openly rips members of the senate and government Elected Military Tribune Elected Quaestor – 63 BC Elected Praetor The birth of political smear campaigns? Accuses the more experienced candidates of bribery and treason and convinces the voters of it and he wins the job. RISE COTINUES… Gets the support of the richest man in Rome – our old friend Marcus Crassus in exchange for his support against Pompey Pompey & Crassus are the 2 most powerful men at the time and hate each other Elected Governor of Spain Elected as Consul of Rome (as high as it gets) RESOLUTION Caesar convinces enemies Pompey and Crassus that with their wealth and public favor they can essentially control everything in the Senate and in Rome They hug it out FIRST TRIUMVATE “Triumvirate” = The Rule of 3 Men JULIUS CAESAR POMPEY CRASSUS GALLIC WARS Pretty much appoints himself to Govern Gaul How long is a term in office in Roman Republic? Caesar gets 5 years. Why? Debt – sees Gaul as a source of income Motivation – Alexander the Great? GAUL Modern Day France & Northern Italy Previously unconquered land Home of “Barbarian” Germanic Tribes Caesar pushes into Britain & Germany GALLIC WARS Caesar fights many battles with many different tribes The lack of unity amongst the tribes proves to be their downfall Caesar’s 5 years are up…they extend him for 5 more. VERCINGETORIX Gallic General unites a bunch of the tribes in a large rebellion vs. Caesar Culminates at the BATTLE OF ALESIA GAUL DEFEATED 51 BC – Rome is in complete control of Gaul FURTHER EXPANSION Caesar attempts several campaigns into modern day Britain & Germany but is defeated or can’t sustain the progress Plans to go back… JULIUS CAESAR BUT!!!!.... POMPEY CRASSUS CIVIL WAR POMPEY: Your term as consul is up, come back to Rome CAESAR: Forget that, I know I’ll be persecuted POMPEY: You refuse to come back? TREASON! CAESAR: Fine I’ll come back . CAESAR crosses the Rubicon river with his legions, seen as a threat to invade Rome and attack Pompey CIVIL WAR Pompey flees to Spain In Rome, Caesar appoints himself dictator and names Marc Antony his right hand man. Caesar then makes himself win an election to be consul again and resigns title of Dictator Chases Pompey all the way to Spain where Pompey is murdered. ROMANCE While in Egypt he falls in love with Cleopatra Caesar conquers Egypt and names Cleopatra as ruler. Conquers Egypt so easily that he mocks Pompey who struggled there as a general for years. Chases Pompey’s son around the Mediterranean, defeats them Named Dictator for 10 years – Republic my left foot! REFORMS UNDER CAESAR Conquered: France, Egypt, Spain Elaborate Gladiatorial Games (Later…) More Children = More $$$ (Repopulate Italy) Added 3 months to 46BC to bring the calendar in alignment with the seasons and added a leap year every 4th year (almost identical to our calendar) Rebuild Carthage & Corinth Made a police force PROTECT HIS POWER CAESAR: “I have the ability to appoint whoever I want as magistrates so when I go conquering elsewhere you guys can’t screw me over again.” Before Caesar can leave the senate calls one last meeting to talk about some potential reforms… Et tu, Brute? The Senators surround Caesar and each stab him, he was stabbed in total 23 times SHAKESPEARE: Caesar sees one of his trusted allies Brutus amongst the killers and utters “and you Brutus?” in disbelief REALITY: Unknown. PEOPLE OF ROME, WE ARE NOW FREE! Ides of March March 15th 44BC SUMMARY Born into a wealthy family which had fallen on hard times. Worked his way up the political ladder securing powerful allies. Spent 10 years conquering Gaul to help pay his debts Returned with legions into Rome to ignite a civil war Defeated his Roman enemies declaring himself dictator for life Assassination leads to the fall of the Roman Republic LEGACY? Would you give Caesar control of your army?