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Roman Republican currency wikipedia , lookup

Late Roman Republic
Roman Republic Map, 40 BC
Wars after Punic Wars
• Numantine Wars – Spain
• Servile War – several slave revolts in Sicily
from 130 BC to 71 BC including Spartacus
• Jugurthine War – against half of Numidia
• 100 BC – Julius Caesar born
Pre-Caesar Generals
• Rivalry between Marius and Sulla
• Confiscations of property
• Sulla fought in Jugurthine War and against
Mithridates in Pontus
• Pompey and Crassus joined Sulla against
• Proscriptions – confiscation and selling of
• 73 BC - Thracian, sold as slave-gladiator
• Led revolt at a gladiator school
• Left town and picked up 70,000 rural slaves on
the way to the Alps
• Won several battles, left behind by pirate
• Crassus finally defeated slaves, Pompey had
6000 crucified on Appian Way
First Triumvirate
Normal - Two consuls, sometimes one dictator
Pompey annexes Syria and Jerusalem
Caesar conquers parts of Spain
Crassus had defeated Spartacus
59 BC - They form 1st Triumvirate, three
consuls in power
• Calpurnia, second wife
Rise of Julius Caesar
• Crassus dies fighting Parthians in
• Proconsul Caesar defeated nemesis Gaul
• Pompey marries daughter of Caesar’s enemy
• Triumvirate dead
• Caesar crosses Rubicon in 49 BC
• “The die is cast.” Roman Civil War begins
Roman Civil War
• Pompey flees Rome to Greece
• Caesar re-elected consul/dictator, then resigns
• Marc Antony second in command “Master of the
• Caesar defeats Pompey’s lieutenants in Spain
• 48 BC - Pompey flees to Egypt, tricked and
• Caesar receives his head, allies with Cleopatra
• Helps her in Egyptian Civil War
Caesar Back in Rome
Caesar returns to Rome in 47 BC
Starts enacting reforms
Puts own image on coins
Offered title of rex but rejects it
44 BC – Ides of March, Caesar stabbed to
death by 60 senators fearful of his becoming
king and ending the republic