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Sedimentary Rocks There are a lot of processes that cause rocks to break apart into smaller pieces. No matter what causes the rock to break, we call the smaller pieces "sediment." Water, wind, and gravity are the main things that move pieces of rock from place to place. Sediment may get transported thousands of miles by one of the world's major rivers, or it may just go from the top of the hill to the bottom during a landslide New sediment acts like a blanket for old sediment-sediments get buried by other sediments Sediment can include minerals, small pieces of plants and other organic matter. The sediment is compressed over a long period of time before consolidating into solid layers of rock. Sedimentary rocks forms layers called strata which can often be seen in exposed cliffs. Sedimentary rocks cover the majority of the Earth's rocky surface but only make up a small percentage of the Earth’s crust compared to metamorphic and igneous types of rocks. Examples of sedimentary rocks include limestone, sandstone, mudstone, greywacke, chalk, coal, claystone and flint.