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Monday Notes n=common noun N=proper noun pos n=possessive noun pro=pronoun pos pro=possessive pronoun ind pro=indefinite pronoun obj pro=objective pronoun dem pro=demonstrative pronoun int pro=interrogative pronoun adj=adjective art=article adv=adverb prep=preposition cc=coordinating conjunction sc=subordinating conjunction int=interjection av=action verb hv=helping verb lv=linking verb pres=present tense past=past tense pres per=present perfect tense part=participle inf=infinitive NOUN person, place, or thing (custodian, forest, car) common noun (n): a general noun; begins with lower case letter (city) proper noun (N): names a specific noun; begins with capital letter (Salt Lake) possessive (pos): shows ownership (our, my, your, his, her, mine, their, its) PRONOUN (pro) takes the place of a noun (he, she, it, they) possessive (pos): shows ownership indefinite (ind): doesn’t refer to a definite person/thing (each, some, all, many, few) objective (obj): used as an object interrogative (int): asks a question demonstrative (dem): shows which one (this, that, these, those) ADJECTIVE (adj) modifies or describes a noun (green pen) or a pronoun (they are happy) tells Which one? (that horse) How many? (two cupcakes) What kind? (strawberry shake) articles (art): a, an, the ADVERB (adv) modifies or describes adjectives (really cute), verbs (runs quickly), and other adverbs (very easily); tells How? (carefully) When? (quickly) Where? (northerly) To what extent? (very) not and never are always adverbs PREPOSITION (prep) shows relationship between a noun/pronoun and another word shows direction (across, before, in, of, over, through, under, around) **see preposition list CONJUNCTION joins words, phrases, and clauses coordinating (cc): FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) subordinating (sc): start adverb dependent clauses (and must be followed by subject and verb) Examples: after, since, before, while, because, although, so that, if, when, whenever, as, even though, until, unless, as it, etc. INTERJECTION (int) expresses excitement or emotion set apart from sentence by a comma or exclamation point (Wow! Your outfit is gorgeous!) VERB shows action or state of being action (av): shows action of the subject (The dog smells the flower.) helping (hv): “helps” the main verb (He should have been taking notes.) linking (lv): links two words together “be” verbs such as: is, be, am, are, was, were, been, being (The flower is pretty.) sense verbs: look, sound, feel, taste, smell (The flower smells pretty.) VERB TENSES present (pres): happening now (jump, talk, eat) past (past): happened previously (jumped, talked, ate) present perfect (pres per): have or has plus past participle (form of a verb); (have jumped, has talked) VERBAL—a work formed from a verb but acting as a noun, adjective, or adverb Participle (part): verb acting like an adjective that ends in –ing or –ed (or other past tense ending) (I have running shoes. It’s an unspoken rule.) Infinitive (inf): to + verb (to eat, to write) Tuesday Notes (____)=complete subject S=simple subject (====)=complete predicate do=direct object vt=transitive verb vi=verb intransitive pa=predicate adjective pn=predicate nominative ( )=prepositional phrase adv prep ph=adverb prepositional phrase op=object of the preposition nda=noun of direct address app=appositive COMPLETE SUBJECT (____) all parts of the subject (subject + modifiers) (Our new puppy is very cute.) SIMPLE SUBJECT (S) found within the complete subject; the main subject (Our new puppy is very cute.) comes before the verb “who” or “what” of the verb (The dog is barking loudly.) “there” and “here” are never the subject of a sentence can be an “understood you” (Bring me the salt./(You) bring me the salt.) COMPLETE PREDICATE (====) all parts of the predicate (predicate + modifiers) (Our new puppy is very cute.) includes verb(s) (simple predicate: the verb that shows action or links) DIRECT OBJECT (do) noun/pronoun (never in the prepositional phrase) follows an action verb and completes the meaning of the subject and verb to find it say “subject, verb, what?/whom? (I like English. “I like what?” English) TRANSITIVE VERB (vt) expresses action toward a direct object (Tell the truth.) INTRANSITIVE VERB (VI) expresses action (or tells something about the subject) without the action being passed to the receiver or direct object (Last Saturday we stayed inside.) PREDICATE ADJECTIVE (pa) an adjective in the predicate that follows the linking verb and describes the subject (He is nice. He is what? nice) PREDICATE NOMINATIVE (PN) Noun/pronoun that follows the linking verb and renames the subject (He is a nice guy. He is a nice what? guy) APPOSITIVE (app) Noun or pronoun that follows and renames another noun or pronoun (My son Beck likes trains.) PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE ( ) group of words beginning with the preposition and ending with a noun/pronoun adverb prepositional phrase (adv prep ph): modifies a verb, adjective, or other adverb (Whales behave with great intelligence.) o can usually be moved within the sentence, but not change the meaning OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION (op) follows preposition and tells “what” or “whom” (The key is under the rug.) NOUN OF DIRECT ADDRESS (nda) Person being spoken to in a sentence (Mom, I’m hungry.) Wednesday Notes [ ]=clause ind cl=independent clause dep cl=dependent clause adv dep cl=adverb dependent clause ss=simple sentence cd=compound sentence cx=complex sentence dec=declarative exc=exclamatory int=interrogative CLAUSES SENTENCE independent clause (ind cl): has a subject and a verb, and can stand on its own dependent clause (dep cl): cannot stand alone; starts with a relative pronoun or a subordinating conjunction adverb (adv dep cl): usually starts with a subordinating conjunction, and acts like an adverb (We will eat when the bell rings.) modifies eat; we will eat is independent TYPES simple sentence (ss): one independent clause compound sentence (cd): two or more independent clauses complex sentence (cx): one independent clause + one or more dependent clauses SENTENCE PURPOSE declarative (dec): ends in a period; makes a statement exclamatory (exc): expresses strong feelings and ends in an exclamation point interrogative (int): asks a question and ends in a question mark Thursday Notes CAPITALIZATION capitalize the beginning of a sentence. capitalize proper nouns: holidays, days of the week, months, historical events, etc. names of states, countries, cities, islands, bodies of water, mountains, streets, parks, stores, etc. COMMAS commas are used to set off items in a series/list. (Please buy apples, bananas, and oranges) SEMICOLON joins two independent clauses without a coordinating conjunction He likes apples; she likes oranges. He goes to Harvard; however, she goes to Yale. can be used in a series with commas for clarity We went to London, England; Paris, France; Madrid, Spain; and Rome, Italy. APOSTROPHE Use apostrophes to make words possessive and to make contractions. UNDERLINING/ITALICIZING Underlining and italicizing are the same thing (one for writing and one for the computer) Underline or italicize titles of long things: newspapers, magazines, CD’s, movies, novels, plays, musical compositions, etc.