Download Monday Notes n=common noun N=proper noun pos n=possessive

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Transcript
Monday Notes
n=common noun
N=proper noun
pos n=possessive noun
pro=pronoun
pos pro=possessive pronoun
ind pro=indefinite pronoun
obj pro=objective pronoun
dem pro=demonstrative pronoun
int pro=interrogative pronoun
adj=adjective
art=article
adv=adverb
prep=preposition
cc=coordinating conjunction
sc=subordinating conjunction
int=interjection
av=action verb
hv=helping verb
lv=linking verb
pres=present tense
past=past tense
pres per=present perfect tense
part=participle
inf=infinitive
NOUN




person, place, or thing (custodian, forest, car)
common noun (n): a general noun; begins with lower case letter (city)
proper noun (N): names a specific noun; begins with capital letter (Salt Lake)
possessive (pos): shows ownership (our, my, your, his, her, mine, their, its)
PRONOUN



(pro)
takes the place of a noun (he, she, it, they)
possessive (pos): shows ownership
indefinite (ind): doesn’t refer to a definite person/thing (each, some, all, many,
few)
 objective (obj): used as an object
 interrogative (int): asks a question
 demonstrative (dem): shows which one (this, that, these, those)
ADJECTIVE (adj)
 modifies or describes a noun (green pen) or a pronoun (they are happy)
 tells Which one? (that horse) How many? (two cupcakes) What kind? (strawberry
shake)
 articles (art): a, an, the
ADVERB (adv)



modifies or describes adjectives (really cute), verbs (runs quickly), and other
adverbs (very easily);
tells How? (carefully) When? (quickly) Where? (northerly) To what extent? (very)
not and never are always adverbs
PREPOSITION (prep)
 shows relationship between a noun/pronoun and another word
 shows direction (across, before, in, of, over, through, under, around)
 **see preposition list
CONJUNCTION
 joins words, phrases, and clauses
 coordinating (cc): FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)
 subordinating (sc): start adverb dependent clauses (and must be followed by
subject and verb) Examples: after, since, before, while, because, although, so
that, if, when, whenever, as, even though, until, unless, as it, etc.
INTERJECTION (int)
 expresses excitement or emotion
 set apart from sentence by a comma or exclamation point (Wow! Your outfit is
gorgeous!)
VERB




shows action or state of being
action (av): shows action of the subject (The dog smells the flower.)
helping (hv): “helps” the main verb (He should have been taking notes.)
linking (lv): links two words together

“be” verbs such as: is, be, am, are, was, were, been, being
(The flower is pretty.)

sense verbs: look, sound, feel, taste, smell
(The flower smells pretty.)
VERB TENSES
 present (pres): happening now (jump, talk, eat)
 past (past): happened previously (jumped, talked, ate)
 present perfect (pres per): have or has plus past participle (form of a
verb); (have jumped, has talked)
VERBAL—a work formed from a verb but acting as a noun, adjective, or adverb
 Participle (part): verb acting like an adjective that ends in –ing or –ed (or
other past tense ending) (I have running shoes. It’s an unspoken rule.)
 Infinitive (inf): to + verb (to eat, to write)
Tuesday Notes
(____)=complete subject
S=simple subject
(====)=complete predicate
do=direct object
vt=transitive verb
vi=verb intransitive
pa=predicate adjective
pn=predicate nominative
( )=prepositional phrase
adv prep ph=adverb prepositional phrase
op=object of the preposition
nda=noun of direct address
app=appositive
COMPLETE SUBJECT (____)
 all parts of the subject (subject + modifiers) (Our new puppy is very cute.)
SIMPLE SUBJECT (S)
 found within the complete subject; the main subject (Our new puppy is very
cute.)
 comes before the verb
 “who” or “what” of the verb (The dog is barking loudly.)
 “there” and “here” are never the subject of a sentence
 can be an “understood you” (Bring me the salt./(You) bring me the salt.)
COMPLETE PREDICATE (====)
 all parts of the predicate (predicate + modifiers) (Our new puppy is very cute.)
 includes verb(s)
(simple predicate: the verb that shows action or links)
DIRECT OBJECT (do)
 noun/pronoun (never in the prepositional phrase)
 follows an action verb and completes the meaning of the subject and verb
 to find it say “subject, verb, what?/whom? (I like English. “I like what?”
English)
TRANSITIVE VERB (vt)
 expresses action toward a direct object (Tell the truth.)
INTRANSITIVE VERB (VI)
 expresses action (or tells something about the subject) without the action being
passed to the receiver or direct object (Last Saturday we stayed inside.)
PREDICATE ADJECTIVE (pa)
 an adjective in the predicate that follows the linking verb and describes the
subject (He is nice. He is what? nice)
PREDICATE NOMINATIVE (PN)
 Noun/pronoun that follows the linking verb and renames the subject (He is a
nice guy. He is a nice what? guy)
APPOSITIVE (app)
 Noun or pronoun that follows and renames another noun or pronoun (My son
Beck likes trains.)
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE (
)
 group of words beginning with the preposition and ending with a
noun/pronoun

adverb prepositional phrase (adv prep ph): modifies a verb, adjective, or
other adverb (Whales behave with great intelligence.)
o
can usually be moved within the sentence, but not change the
meaning
OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION (op)
 follows preposition and tells “what” or “whom” (The key is under the rug.)
NOUN OF DIRECT ADDRESS (nda)
Person being spoken to in a sentence (Mom, I’m hungry.)
Wednesday Notes
[ ]=clause
ind cl=independent clause
dep cl=dependent clause
adv dep cl=adverb dependent clause
ss=simple sentence
cd=compound sentence
cx=complex sentence
dec=declarative
exc=exclamatory
int=interrogative
CLAUSES


SENTENCE



independent clause (ind cl): has a subject and a verb, and can stand on its own
dependent clause (dep cl): cannot stand alone; starts with a relative pronoun or
a subordinating conjunction

adverb (adv dep cl): usually starts with a subordinating conjunction,
and acts like an adverb (We will eat when the bell rings.) modifies eat;
we will eat is independent
TYPES
simple sentence (ss): one independent clause
compound sentence (cd): two or more independent clauses
complex sentence (cx): one independent clause + one or more dependent
clauses
SENTENCE PURPOSE
 declarative (dec): ends in a period; makes a statement


exclamatory (exc): expresses strong feelings and ends in an exclamation point
interrogative (int): asks a question and ends in a question mark
Thursday Notes
CAPITALIZATION
 capitalize the beginning of a sentence.
 capitalize proper nouns:

holidays, days of the week, months, historical events, etc.

names of states, countries, cities, islands, bodies of water,
mountains, streets, parks, stores, etc.
COMMAS

commas are used to set off items in a series/list. (Please buy apples, bananas,
and oranges)
SEMICOLON
 joins two independent clauses without a coordinating conjunction

He likes apples; she likes oranges.

He goes to Harvard; however, she goes to Yale.
 can be used in a series with commas for clarity

We went to London, England; Paris, France; Madrid, Spain; and Rome,
Italy.
APOSTROPHE
 Use apostrophes to make words possessive and to make contractions.
UNDERLINING/ITALICIZING
 Underlining and italicizing are the same thing (one for writing and one for the
computer)
 Underline or italicize titles of long things: newspapers, magazines, CD’s, movies,
novels, plays, musical compositions, etc.