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Nutrition Midterm Exam Study Guide
1. The nourishing substances in food that provide energy and promote the growth and maintenance of the body
are called:
2. What health complications are associated with obesity?
Heart Disease
High Blood Pressure
3. What do most Americans not eat enough of?
Whole Grains
4. What is the most important consideration when choosing something to eat?
The taste of the food
5. Textures that most people like include:
6. What is basal metabolic rate?
The energy your body needs when it is awake and at rest
7. The smallest contributor to your energy needs is:
The energy needed to digest and absorb food
8. Nutrients that do not provide calories include?
9. What are macronutrients?
Nutrients that the body needs in large amounts, usually measured in grams or ounces, including
Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins
10. What are carbohydrates?
A large class of nutrients including sugars, starches and fibers – sugars and starches function as the body’s
primary energy source
11. Foods high in protein include:
Animal Foods – smaller amounts are found in certain plant foods including grains, legumes, beans and
vegetables, but they are not complete
12. Which nutrient is ranked second only to oxygen as essential to life?
13. Nutrients that either cannot be made in the body or cannot be made in the quantities needed by the body are
Essential Nutrients
14. A(n) _moderate_ diet avoids excessive amounts of kcalories or any particular food or food group.
15. An example of a nutrient dense food is a(n):
Vegetable, fruit, whole grain, seafood, eggs, beans and peas, unsalted nuts and seeds, fat-free and low-fat milk
and milk products, and lean meats and poultry ( when prepared without adding any solid fats or sugars)
16. What is fortification and enrichment?
Fortification – nutrients are added to the food that were never present in the food, or are added in amounts in
excess of what was in the food prior to processing
Enrichment – the replacement of nutrients that were lost in processing
17. What does RDA stand for?
Recommended Dietary Allowance
18. What is digestion?
Digestion is the process by which food is broken down into its components in the gastrointestinal tract with the
help of digestive enzymes.
19. Explain how food travels through the body. The digestive process.
Mouth – tongue and teeth chew food, saliva contains digestive enzymes and lubricates the food to move it
through the digestive tract, tongue pushes food through the pharynx and into the esophagus, which carries food
to the stomach. The stomach produces hydrochloric acid, which destroys bad bacteria and helps in the digestion
of protein. Fatty foods leave the stomach after carbohydrates and proteins. In the small intestine, foods are still
being digested. This is the site of most nutrient absorption. Most nutrients pass through villi into the blood
vessels or are carried into the blood. Nutrients travel in the blood throughout the body, where they can enter
the cells. The large intestine connects the small intestine to the rectum. It receives waste products where it
passes them on to the rectum for storage until elimination. The large intestine absorbs water, some minerals
and a few vitamins (such as vitamin K) which are made by bacteria residing there.
20. The digestive system organ that passes waste to be excreted and absorbs some water and minerals is the:
Large Intestine
21. Which nutrient takes the longest to exit from the stomach?
22. What happens in the small intestine during digestion?
In the small intestine, foods are still being digested. This is the site of most nutrient absorption. Most nutrients
pass through villi into the blood vessels or are carried into the blood. Nutrients travel in the blood throughout
the body, where they can enter the cells.
23. What is catabolism and anabolism?
Together these processes make up metabolism – catabolism is the breaking down of substances, such as during
digestion, and anabolism is the building up of substances using the components created during catabolism, such
as when the body repairs and replaces cells.
24. The taste sensations include:
Sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami
25. What is metabolism?
All the chemical processes by which nutrients are used to support life
26. Which nutrients must be on a food label?
Total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, sugars and protein.
27. What is MyPlate?
MyPlate is a visual food guide developed by the USDA which is based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans
and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
28. What are the food groups in MyPlate?
Fruits, Grains, Vegetables, Proteins and Dairy
29. If you can eat 2,000 kcalories using MyPlate, how many ounces of protein do you need daily?
5 ½ ounces
30. Consuming whole fruits rather than juice helps you take in more:
31. What 3 parts do whole grains contain?
Bran, germ and endosperm
32. Which foods are highest in saturated fat?
Mostly animal foods (bacon, sausage, franks), grain-based desserts such as cookies made with fat and eggs,
whole milk and dairy products made with whole milk, such as many cheeses and ice cream, eggs, poultry skin
and tropical oils including palm oil, palm kernel oil and coconut oil
33. Sodium is primarily consumed as:
34. Most of the salt we eat comes from:
Processed foods (over 75% of sodium intake)
35. What is the difference between food guides and dietary recommendations?
Dietary Recommendations – guidelines that discuss food groups, foods and nutrients to eat for optimal health
Food Guides – Guidelines that tell us the kinds and the amounts of foods to make a nutritionally adequate diet.
They are typically based on current dietary recommendations, the nutrient content of food and the eating habits
of the targeted population.
36. According to MyPlate, how many servings of each food group should you consume daily?
Fruit –
Vegetables Grains Proteins Dairy -
1-Cup Servings
1 Cup Servings
1 Ounce Servings
1 Ounce Servings
1 Cup Servings
37. Who approves health claims?
Health claims must be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
38. Foods in the ________ group are rich in calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and protein.
Use the food label to answer questions 40-46
40. How large is the entire package?
16 ounces
41. How many kcalories in the entire package?
42. How many total grams of fat in each
43. How many grams of fiber in the entire
44. How many milligrams of salt
(sodium) are in each serving?
45. What is the percent Daily Value
of Calcium in each serving?
46. How many grams of protein in
the entire package? 96
--47. What does blood sugar refer to?
The amount of glucose found in the blood
48. Which nutrients does table sugar provide?
Virtually none
49. How are honey and table sugar similar?
Both provide kcalories with virtually no nutrients
50. Can fiber be digested?
Fiber cannot be broken down by human digestive enzymes, but some, soluble fiber, is digested by bacteria in
the large intestine.
51. Which foods contain fiber?
Soluble fiber is found in oats and barley, beans, fruits such as apples, pears and citrus fruits, and vegetables such
as carrots, Brussels sprouts and sweet potatoes.
Insoluble fiber is found in wheat bran, whole grains, beans, peas and lentils, many fruits and vegetables and
52. Simple carbohydrates include:
Monosaccharides, which are made of one sugar unit – glucose, fructose and galactose
Disaccharides, which are made of two sugar units – sucrose, maltose and lactose
53. Where is starch found?
Starch is found in plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, potatoes, corn, pasta, beans, rice and
54. Explain complex carbohydrates.
Complex carbohydrates are made up of long chains of sugars; they contain starches and fibers.
55. Which 2 monosaccharaides make up sucrose?
Glucose and Fructose
56. The sugar found in milk is called:
57. The chemical name for white sugar is:
58. Which sugar is rich in fruits?
59. Which foods contain a lot of added sugar?
Processed foods, pastries, cupcakes, doughnuts, cookies, candy, sweetened cereals, regular soft drinks and
60. Your blood _________ level is vital to the proper functioning of the body.
61. When heated in liquid, starches ______________________.
62. Which foods do NOT contain fiber?
Meats, poultry, fish, dairy foods, and eggs
63. What is the endosperm?
The endosperm is the large center area of cereal grains that is high in starch.
64. The primary source of the body’s energy is:
65. Under most circumstances, the brain and other nerve cells will only use ________ for energy.
66. Which hormone is necessary for glucose to leave the bloodstream and enter the body’s cells?
67. What is lactose intolerance?
Lactose intolerance occurs when a person is deficient in the enzyme lactase which is needed to split lactose into
its components, glucose and galactose, in the small intestine. When this split does not occur, thee lactose
cannot be digested and absorbed, so it continues to the colon where it attracts water and causes bloating and
diarrhea. Intestinal bacteria ferment the lactose, causing gas and further diarrhea.
68. In order to be absorbed, all carbohydrates must be broken down into____________. The liver will convert them
into_____________ to be carried into the blood system.
one-sugar units; glucose
69. What is the origin and consistency of fats?
Fats are generally of animal origin and are solid at room temperature.
70. What is the origin and consistency of oils?
Oils are generally of plant origin and are liquid at room temperature.
71. In foods, fat enhances:
Taste, flavor, aroma, crispness, juiciness and tenderness
72. Where do we find most saturated fats?
Beef, lamb, pork, poultry skin, grain-based desserts such as cookies made with fats, fried foods, whole milk,
cheese, ice cream, butter, eggs, cream and tropical oils – palm, palm kernel and coconut
73. Where do we find most polyunsaturated fats?
Vegetable oils – sunflower, safflower, corn, soybean and sesame; nuts and seeds, and fish high in Omega 3 fatty
acids EPA and DHA – salmon, tuna, mackerel, sardines, halibut and trout
74. All lipids break down into:
Fatty acids and glycerol
75. Which foods contain little fat?
Fruits and vegetables, egg whites, low-fat or fat-free milk and milk products
76. Margarine is usually made from:
Hydrogenated vegetable oil
77. Most fish is lower in fat and saturated fat than:
Meats and poultry
78. Explain trans fats and hydrogenation
Trans fats occur naturally at safe levels in meats and dairy foods. They become a nutritional problem when they
occur in large numbers as a result of hydrogenation. Hydrogenation is the process by which liquid oils are
combined with hydrogen under heat to cause them to remain sold at room temperatures.
79. In the body, trans fatty acids behave like ________________ and raise blood cholesterol levels.
Saturated fats
80. Omega-3 fatty acids are most important for the health of your:
Body’s cells and immune system
81. Pregnant women, nursing mothers, and young children should take special precautions to avoid fish containing
high levels of _________________.
82. About ____ percent of your fat stores are located under the skin where it helps keep you warm and provides a
cushion around vital organs.
83. Which type of cell in your body stores fat?
84. Once fats reach the small intestine, the gallbladder is stimulated to release ________ into the intestine to
emulsify fat.
85. What are lipoproteins?
Protein coated packages that carry triglycerides and cholesterol through the bloodstream
86. What is HDL?
High density lipoproteins – they carry cholesterol away from the body’s cells and tissues to the liver for
excretion from the body – the “good” cholesterol
87. High levels of LDL increase your risk of:
Cardiovascular Disease
88. Fat intake is recommended for adults to be:
20-35% of total kcalories
89. About ____ percent or less of your kcalories can come from saturated fat.
90. The number one killer of men and women in the United States is:
Heart Disease
91. What is the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries?
LDL – Low density lipoproteins – the “bad” cholesterol
92. What are amino acids?
The building blocks of protein
93. Complete or high-quality proteins include:
Animal proteins such as meats, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, and other dairy products, as well as soy protein. These
proteins contain all 9 essential amino acids in the proportions needed by the body.
94. What is the difference in protein between plants and animals?
Plant proteins are generally incomplete and animal proteins are generally complete.
95. What are enzymes?
Enzymes are catalysts in the body that speed up reactions.
96. What are hormones?
Chemical messengers secreted into the bloodstream by various organs that travel to a target organ and
influence what it does
97. What are antibodies?
Proteins in the blood that bind with foreign bodies or invaders to destroy them
98. Where does protein digestion begin?
In the stomach
99. The RDA for protein is:
.36 grams of protein per pound of body weight
100. Eating more protein than needed will result in:
Excess protein is stored as fat, so eating too much of it, especially from high fat animal sources, can lead to
weight gain and high levels of blood cholesterol.
101. Deficiency of what nutrient can weaken the immune system?
102. What is denaturation and what can cause it?
Denaturation is the process by which protein structure changes – it shrinks, becomes firm and loses moisture.
Denaturation is caused by the application of heat, whipping or the addition of acid.
103. As eggs cook, the protein denatures and:
Turns white and becomes firm.
104. Leaner cuts of beef include:
Flank steak, tenderloin, filets, eye round roast, top round steak, top sirloin steak, and 90/10 or 95/5 ground beef
105. Complete proteins are low in one or more essential amino acids.
106. Soy protein is an example of complete protein.
107. What is an amino acid pool?
The overall amount of amino acids distributed in the blood, organs and body’s cells
108. What happens to bread gluten during processing?
Gluten is a protein found in flour that is released when the flour is combined with liquid and kneaded. As the
dough is worked, the proteins form long strands that support the structure of baked goods. The longer the
processing time, the more gluten is released, resulting in a chewier texture.