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Transcript
LAB GUIDE: THIGH & POPLITEAL FOSSA
The thigh has 3 compartments: Anterior, medial and posterior compartments.
Anterior compartment muscles:3 muscles F (FEMORAL NERVE)
Iliopsoas: You know iliac fossa and iliacus muscle lying over it. İliacus combining with psoas
major by the spine (where the lumbar plexus branches leave) form iliopsoas. To find it,
please follow the iliacus under the inguinal ligament.
Quadriceps femoris means a muscle with four heads, but this time no short, long etc. 4
different names: Rectus femoris in the middle, vastus medialis medial to it, and vastus
lateralis lateral to it. The tendon of rectus femoris up to the patella. Over patella patellar
ligament which is the continuation of quadriceps femoris tendon. Vastus intermedius: Under
rectus femoris. Quadriceps femoris extends the knee.
Sartorius: You can not miss it. A muscle crossing the anterior thigh from A.S.I.S. to medial
side of tibia. This muscle Works when u r crossing ur leg (do the following: Flex, abduct, and
laterally rotate thigh at hip joint; flex leg at knee joint (medially rotatie leg when knee flexed) !
Under sartorius we have the three muscles:rectus femoris, the vastus med & lat (intermedius
under rectus femoris)
Medial compartment muscles 0 (OBTURATOR NERVE)
Find iliopsoas, medial to it, under pubis: Pectineus. (Watch out! Innervated by femoral
nerve! Exception)..
We have muscles starting with the word “adductor”. Just below the pectineus is adductor
longus. Lying beneath the adductor longus is adductor “brevis”. You can easily see the
adductor longus and adductor brevius lying under it in the cadaver.
Adductor magnus forms the adductor canal medially. Under the post. thigh muscles
posteriorly. Under the last lateral rotator of the thigh muscle “quadratus femoris” we have
adductor minimus: the superior part of adductor magnus is named this way. Of course, just
under adductor minimus adductor magnus making the bulk of the medial side of your thigh.
The very most medial muscle, called “slender”= gracilis. From body and inferior ramus of
pubis to medial surface of tibia.
Posterior compartment muscles: 3 muscles S (SCIATIC NERVE)
Start from the most lateral side: Long head of biceps femoris. Semitendinosus is next to it
up. Semimembranosus is actually between these two muscles, better seen inferiorly.
The order is long head of biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus from
lateral to medial. Semitendinosus the most medial post. compartment of thigh muscle is very
typical: a big amount of it is tendon inferiorly. Under these muscles: adductor magnus.
You will see in the cadaver that semitendinosus is covering partly the semimembranosus.
Sciatic nerve goes over the adductor magnus posteriorly. Above the popliteal fossa divides
into two terminal branches: Follow the sciatic nerve down: tibial nerve, the sciatic nerve’s
branch going laterally and making a circle around the neck of fibula: common fibular nerve or
common peroneal nerve.
Hamstring muscles are all the post. thigh muscles EXCEPT the short head of biceps femoris.
The short head is seen especially down under the long head and the short head is innervated
by common peroneal nerve. The others are innervated by the tibial nerve.
These muscles flex the knee.
Femoral nerve is @ anterior part. V.A.N. (femoral vein, femoral artery and femoral nerve)
from medial to lateral.
Femoral artey is actually the external iliac artery going under the inguinal ligament. After
passing from inguinal ligament, under this ligament becomes the femoral artery.
Femoral artery’s big branch: A. profunda femoris (A. profunda brachii was medially located),
this one leaves the femoral artery from the lateral side. A branch of a.profunda femoris @
Index: Lateral circumflex femoral artery.
Femoral artery enters adductor canal, saphaneous nerve (long skin nerve of femoral nerve)
also. Posteriorly femoral artery leaving this canal becomes popliteal artery in the popliteal
fossa. Popliteal artery has 4 branches. Very easy. Genu= Knee. Sup. lateral and medial
genicular arteries, and Inf. lateral and medial genicular arteries.