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Transcript
HINDUISM–Introduction
Hinduism (हिन्द ू धर्म; also
known as Sanātana
Dharma - सनातन धर्म,
and Vaidika-Dharma - वैहदक
धर्म) is based on the Vedas
and is the direct
descendant of the Vedic
religion.The IndoEuropeans (Aryans)
Introduce the Vedic Age
into India.
Timeline
The
Jesus Temple
in New Delhi.
All of the Hindu Scriptures,
Epics, Codes, and so forth
are available in English at
http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/
The Vedas
HOW THEY CAME TO BE WRITTEN
Krishna first reveals the Vedic knowledge to Brahma
(Srimad-Bhagavatam 2.9.5–37)
Brahma passes the Vedas to Narada, who passes them to Vyasa
(Srimad-Bhagavatam 2.9.44–5)
Vyasa compiles the four Vedas (Srimad-Bhagavatam 1.4.15–25)
First he [Krishna-dvaipayana Vyasa] divided the Vedas into
four, then he explained them in the Puranas, and for less
capable people he wrote the Mahabharata. In the
Mahabharata there is given the Bhagavad-gita. Then all
Vedic literature is summarized in the Vedanta-sutra, and
for future guidance he gave a natural commentation on the
Vedanta-sutra, called Srimad-Bhagavatam”
(Bhagavad-gita Intro)
Upanishads
Actions
Know the Atman (Self) as
the lord of the chariot,
and the body as the
chariot. Know also the
Intellect to be the driver
and mind the reins.
The senses are called
the horses; the sense
objects are the
roads ("Katha Upanishad")
The Bhagavad Gita
Hindu theology, at present,
depicts four (4) descending
levels of deity and divinity:
1. The Brahman, the Absolute,
the Infinite One, the IT IS.
2. The Trimurti, the supreme trinity of Hinduism. In this
association Brahma, the first member, is conceived as being selfcreated out of the Brahman--infinity. Were it not for close
identification with the pantheistic Infinite One, Brahma could
constitute the foundation for a concept of the Universal Father.
Brahma is also identified with fate.
The worship of the second and third members, Siva (Shiva) and
Vishnu, arose in the first millennium after Christ. Siva is lord of life
and death, god of fertility, and master of destruction. Vishnu is
extremely popular due to the belief that he periodically incarnates
in human form. In this way, Vishnu becomes real and living in the
imaginations of the Indians. Siva and Vishnu are each regarded
by some as supreme over all.
The Trimurti:
Vishnu……Shiva……Brahma
3. Vedic and post-Vedic deities. Many of the ancient
gods of the Aryans, such as Agni, Indra, Soma, have persisted
as secondary to the three members of the Trimurti. Numerous
additional gods have arisen since the early days of Vedic India,
and these have also been incorporated into the Hindu pantheon.
4. The demigods: supermen, semigods, heroes, demons,
ghosts, evil spirits, sprites, monsters, goblins, and saints of the
later-day cults.
(or Ends)
FOUR ENDS OF HINDU LIFE (Purusharthas)
Based on the principle of progressive evolution of soul,
the Doctrine of Four Ends forms the basis of individual
and social life of a Hindu.
The Four Ends are :
1) Dharma - Righteousness and good moral and ethical
practices in accordance with the scriptures. Includes
all duties -- individual, social and religious
2) Artha (Wealth) - Not an end in itself but basic
necessity, one must earn enough wealth in order to
raise a family and maintain a household
- Wealth must not be for hoarding but for sharing
with those who are poor, handicapped or less
fortunate
- Dharma and Artha must be coordinated in order
to earn decent living while recognizing that artha
is not an ultimate end of Hindu religious life
3) Kama - Denotes the wants and desires of body and
mind in the form of desires, passions, emotions and
drives
- Satisfaction of genuine human desires such as art,
music, savory food, sports, conjugal love, filial
affections, clothes, jewelry etc. are not suppressed
but must be satisfied in a controlled fashion
- Through controlled satisfaction of genuine desires
and passions, an individual becomes free from
kama
- Freedom from sensual desires and passion is
necessary for attaining moksha and is made
possible by the proper coordination of dharma,
artha, and kama
4) Moksha – The ultimate aim of all Hindus is to
escape from cycle of birth and death and to make an
individual a better person, so that he/she can live
harmoniously in this world and seek union with God.
This escape or liberation is called Moksha, and it is
a kind of salvation. If a person takes good actions in
life and thus builds good karma, he or she will be
born into a better life in the next incarnation. This
cycle of birth and death continues until a person
reaches moksha.
The soul changes bodies like
a person changes his clothes.
If you have lived badly, your
next overcoat may be rotting.
Actions that result in
BAD KARMA
Actions that result in
GOOD KARMA
eating meat
anger
vegetarianism
self-control
violence
greed
non-violence
truthfulness
ignorance
attachments
generosity
harshness
desires
charity
untruthfulness
gambling
forgiveness
lust
alcohol
cleanliness
pleasing oneself at the expense of
others
being free from all attachments,
desires, and selfishness
….
.
Ganga,
The
River
goddess
………………………………………………………….
……
Kartikeya
Ganesh, the
elephant-nosed
god
Krishna
Hanuman
……
Worship
Mediation is often practiced, with yoga being the most common
system. Other activities include:
daily prayers,
public rituals, and
puja, a ceremonial dinner for the god.
 Dot for blessing
Selling flowers for puja

A Sadhu
…
Kites have been used in the past, among other things, for medical purposes, strategies
in warfare and to ward off the evil eye.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
- Identify the major spiritual disciplines including guru and yogic
practices.
- Name the religion's major theistic cults and philosophical
systems.
- Explain the importance of Hindu scripture, including the
Ramayana and Bhagavad-Gita, to the religion.
- Describe some of the important worship practices.
- Recognize important names and terms such as Sanatana
Dharma, Brahman, Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad-Gita,
Vishnu, Siva, Krishna, atman, reincarnation, karma,
moksha, samsara, bhakti, castes, mantras, yantras, yoga,
guru, dualistic, monistic, puja, and darsan.
Review
1. The Hindu scriptures, the Vedas, were
written in
a. Sanskrit.
b. Aramaic.
c. Hindi.
d. Pali.
2. The Vedas are composed of four parts:
the Samhitas, Brahmanas, the
_____________, and the Upanishads.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Ramayana
Mahabharata
Bhagavad-Gita
Aranyakas
3. The Vedas are believed to have come
directly from Brahman as heard by
_____________, ancient wise men.
a. rishis
b. gurus
c. priests
d. brahmin
4. A(n) ______ is a monastic retreat
community developed around a teacher.
a.
b.
c.
d.
sangat
sangha
ashram
mosque
5. The Upanishads, the last of the
Vedas, include teachings on
a) the nature of oneself.
b) the nature of Brahman.
c) the nature of the soul or atman.
d) any of these.
6. The members of the Hindu caste
system with the highest status were
priests or
a) Brahmins.
b) Kshatriyas.
c) Vaishyas.
d) Shudras.
7. Members of the lowest caste group
once called "untouchables" were
renamed "harijans" by Mahatma Gandhi.
"Harijans" means
a) sons of Brahmin.
b) God's chosen.
c) redeemed ones.
d) children of God.
8. ____________ is a poetic narrative
epic depicting the struggle of Rama.
a) Hanuman, the Monkey Chief
b) Rama and Sita
c) Ramayana
d) Mahabharata
9. Krishna's teachings to Arjuna as
recorded in the Bhagavad-Gita include
lessons on
a) how to recognize what is eternal.
b) how to transcend one's self.
c) the importance of loving the Eternal Being.
d) any of these.
10. A Hindu male's life time is
traditionally divided into four stages-student, householder, semi-retired
person, and a
a) guru.
b) monk.
c) teacher.
d) sannyasin.
11. Within the Hindu religion there has
developed a variety of paths to achieve
liberation from suffering known as yoga. The
four main yogic paths are jnana, karma,
bhakti, and __________ , the path most
familiar to Westerners.
a) transcendental meditation
b) Moksha
c) Puja
d) raja
12. The ultimate goal of yogic meditation
is __________, a state of union with the
Absolute.
a) puja
b) sadhanas
c) nirvana
d) samadhi
13. This yogic path emphasizes rational
thought as the path to liberation.
a) jnana
b) karma
c) yogi
d) bhakti
14. This yogic path emphasizes
helping others as the path to
liberation.
a) jnana
b) karma
c) yogi
d) bhakti
15. Most Hindus worship one of these
three deities.
a) Vishn, Siva, Brahma
b) Vishnu, Siva, Sakti
c) Agni, Siva, Indra
d) Vishnu, Agni, Indra
16. The worship of the feminine form of
the divine has been present in India
since ancient times. This divinity has
been associated closely with nature
including the _________ River, which is
considered especially sacred to Hindus.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Luni
Godavari
Ganges
Yamuna
17. A major difference in the two major
philosophical systems of Hinduism (Samkhya
& Advaita Vedanta) is their understanding of
reality. While Advaita Vedanta is monistic,
holding that there is one reality, the
Samkhya philosophy confirms that there are
really _________ realities.
a) two
b) many
c) four
d) three
MATCHING QUESTIONS
(SOME TERMS TO KNOW)
#1 ____ dharma
____ karma
____ reincarnation
____ moksha
____ samsara
____ atman
a. the soul
b. the transmigration of the soul into a new body after death
c. actions and the results of those actions on future lives
d. the continuous cycle of birth, death, and rebirth
e. natural, social and ethical order; health and
transcendental realization
f. liberation from the cycle of suffering--life, death, and
rebirth
#2 ____ Brahman
____ Vishnu
____ Siva (Shiva)
____ Vedas
____ Aryans
____ Upanishads
#3 ____ mantra
____ bhakti
____ guru
____ yoga
____ yantras
____ puja
a. wisdom teachings, the last of the Vedas
b. a form of the Supreme Being who incarnates again and
again to save the world
c. Hinduism's major religious text
d. Indo-European tribes thought to have migrated to India
from southern Russia
e. the Absolute, Supreme Being
f. Harappan civilizations may have worshipped this god,
one of the major forms of the Supreme Reality
worshipped today
a. intense devotion to a personal god
b. paths to liberation from suffering
c. spiritual teacher
d. worship
e. linear images with cosmic symbolism used to still the
mind
f. verbal formulas used by priests
SOME QUESTIONS FOR THOUGHT
1.
Annie Dillard in Pilgrim at Tinker Creek writes, "The one thing that all religions recognize as
separating us from our creator--our very self consciousness--is also the one thing that
divides us from our fellow man." Explain how this idea applies to the basic beliefs of
Hinduism.
2.
Describe the evidence that connects the Harappan civilizations to the Hindu religion that
exists today.
3.
Explain the differences between the Aryan Invasion Theory and the Indian tradition
regarding the origins of Hinduism.
4.
All religious activities can be diminished by an emphasis on the exterior rather than the inner
experience. With this in mind, explain the importance of Hindu rituals such as the fire
sacrifice.
5.
Trace the development of the concept of bhakti in Hinduism.
6.
Describe the cycles of time in Hinduism. What evidence do you see that we are currently in
the fourth cycle?
7.
Discuss the relationship of the caste system to the Hindu concept of dharma. Include a
discussion of the religious roles of women.
8.
What do the major Hindu philosophical systems have in common?
more)
(
Any Questions?
Next……Buddhism