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Unit 8
Revision Booklet
Section one: Beliefs and Sources of Authority
Key Words
Islam: The name of the religion followed by Muslims; to surrender to the will of God; peace.
Muslim: One who has submitted to the will of Allah and has accepted Islam.
Allah: The Islamic name for God.
Tawhid: Oneness and unity of Allah.
Risalah: Prophethood; channel of communication.
Prophethood: Channel of communication with God.
Akhira: Everlasting life after death.
Day of Judgement: The day when Allah will decide about individual deeds, good and bad, and on reward and
Paradise: A place of perfect happiness; the afterlife.
Hell: Eternal separation from Allah.
Quran: The holy book revealed to the Prophet Muhammad by the angel Jibril. Allah’s final revelation to humankind.
Revelation: The words of the Quran being shown to Muhammad; Allah shows himself to believers.
Compilation: A gathering together into one book of material from more than one source.
Surah: A division of the Quran. There are 114 in total.
Recitation: A repeating of a passage or poem from memory.
Authority: Power to give orders to others and expect obedience.
Hadith: The sayings of the prophet Muhammad. A major source of Islamic law.
Sunnah:The teachings and deeds of Muhammad.
Muhammad: The last and greatest prophet of Allah. The name Muhammad means ‘praised’.
Hijra:The migration of the prophet Muhammad from Makkah to Madinah in 622 CE, the Muslim calendar commences
from this event.
Madinah: Muhammad travelled to Madina from Makkah in 622 CE. It is regarded as the second holiest city in Islam
and is the burial place of the prophet Muhammad.
Shariah: Islamic law based directly upon the Qur’an and sunnah
Sunni: Muslims who believe in the successorship of Abu Bakr, Umar , Uthman and Ali.
Imam: In shi’ah Islam this title is given to Ali and his successors
Shi’ah (shi’i):Muslims who believe in the successorship of Ali. (Party of Ali)
Nature of God
Tawhid: Belief about Allah; in particular God’s
oneness, his power(omnipotence), creativity, mercy
and compassion.
Muslim beliefs about Tawhid (Oneness of Allah)
• Muslims believe that there is only one God, Allah.
• He has no partner, wife or children.
• He does not need anyone.
• Mentioned in Surah Al-Ikhlas
‘He is Allah the one and the only. Allah the eternal
absolute. He begot none, nor was he begotten. And there
is none like him.’
Mentioned in the Shahadah, declaration of
‘I declare that there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is
His messenger’.
The 99 names are also a way of understanding
the qualities/nature of God e.g.) Most Merciful,
Most Compassionate, The Judge, The All seeing
and The Provider.
Imagery cannot be used to portray God as there
is nothing like God.
Allah’s Power
• Muslims believe that Allah has power over everything.
• He controls the universe
• Nothing happens without His permission
• He has a plan for everything.
• Why is Shirk a Major Sin?
The sin of shirk (associating partners with
God) is a major sin in Islam.
• The Qur’an says Allah forgives all sins accept
• Shirk contradicts the Muslim belief of Tawhid
• If Allah has a partner then this means he
needs someone
• The Qur’an speaks badly about people who
commit Shirk.
Section one: Beliefs and Sources of Authority
Why is belief in risalah important?
Prophets are human beings chosen by God to
carry out a special role as his messengers.
Quran names 25 prophets but Muslims believe
124,000 have been sent in total.
Islam was revealed to the first of prophets,
Adam and was therefore the first religion.
Due to humans losing, forgetting, deliberately
editing and misunderstanding that message God
sent other prophets to remind them and call them
to the true path of guidance.
Muslims believe that each prophet brought the
same religion and although the other original
revelations have been changed, they should still
be respected.
Muhammad was selected as the final prophet by
God. The seal of prophets.
Islam teaches only Islam is an accurate record of
God’s message. .
Angels play a part in revelation. They bring God’s
word to messengers.
Angels also take information from humans and
present it to God.
Prophets brought guidance of Allah to different nations
at different times showing that the message was from
the beginning.
All prophets brought the same message showing Allah is
All prophets brought the same message of Islam
showing that Islam is a true religion
All prophets prepared the way for the final prophet,
Muhammad (SAW)
This is the belief in the hereafter.
• Angel Izrail (Angel of Death) removes the soul from the
body. Either gently removes it or rips it out depending
on how virtuous the person was.
• Muslims believe that the physical body dies but the
person continues to live on.
• The deceased hear themselves being prepared for burial
and put in the grave.
• The deceased hears the last footsteps walking away
from the grave.
• The questioning of the grave will then begin. Two
angels will ask the following questions;
1) Who is your Lord?
2) Who is your prophet?
3) What is your religion?
• If answered correctly reward begins in the grave and if
one has denied God then the punishments will start.
• They will stay in the grave until the day of Judgement.
.Judgement Day
• Angel Israfil blows the trumpet upon God’s command
and everything on earth is destroyed.
• They will rise from the dead (resurrect) when the angel
Israfil blows into the trumpet for the second time.
• The book of their life long deeds will be given to them
and they will read out from it.
• If the book is given in the right hand they will go heaven
and if given in left hand they will go hell.
• They will be judged by Allah on this day.
Every Muslim knows he or she will have to give an account
of what they had done so MUSLIMS WILL AIM TO:
Observe the five pillars
Learn the Quran
Follow the Shariah and avoid haram
Be honest and fair in every aspect of life
Do every action for the pleasure of Allah
Section one: Beliefs and Sources of Authority
The Qur’an
Revelation of the Quran
• Muslims believe this is the Word of God.
• The angel Jibril brought it to Muhammad (PBUH)
• The first surah to be revealed was Surah ‘Alaq’. This
happened in the Cave of Hira in the year 610 CE.
• Revelation of the entire Quran took 23 years.
• God does not directly speak to humans as He is much
greater and humans would not be able to cope with
God’s divine presence.
Compilation of the Quran
• Muhammad would recite the revelations to his
companions who would memorise them by heart.
• They would also note them down on parchment, scraps
of bone and leather.
• After the prophets death it became necessary to collect
all the materials and compile them into an official
version so that it did not undergo corruption.
• The Qur’an is split into 114 Surahs (chapters).
• The first surah of the Quran (Al Fatiha) is recited in the
daily prayers.
• Many people memorise the Qur’an as a way of protecting
it. A person who memorises the Quran is given honourable
title of ‘Hafiz’
Introduction to the Life of the Prophet
• Muhammed (pbuh) was born in the year 570 CE.
• His father passed away before he was born
• His mother died when he was 6
• He was raised by his uncle Abu Talib
• The prophet experienced much loss in his early
• Muhammad joined the family business and
became a trader.
• He earnt himself a great reputation. Meccans
regarded him as Al-Amin (Trustworthy one).
Religious Situation of Makkah Before Islam
Meccans were polytheists.
Worshipped multiple Gods and Goddesses
360 idols were kept in the Ka’abah
Did not believe in a life after death so did not worry about
consequences of actions
The authority (power) of the Quran
The Quran hold supreme authority in the life of a Muslim
Muslims believe it is an earthly copy of heavenly
It is the only unchanged book of Allah – it contains the
exact words of Allah
It was brought by the final prophet – it was for all
people of all time
It is the first miracle of Islam – the Prophet was
illiterate, hence was a miracle that he was the one who
was teaching it to the people.
It shows them how to follow in the straight path
It offers support and help in the times of need and
Before reading or touching the Quran a Muslim must:
i) Perform Wudu (ritual washing)
ii) Make sure they are in the right frame of mind
When the Quran is recited a Muslim must:
i) Not speak
ii) Not eat or drink
When not being read a Muslim must:
i) Cover it to protect from dust
ii) Put it in a high place and not place any thing else on top
of it
Respect can also be shown by Muslims by applying
Quranic teachings in their lives
The Prophet Muhammad had set an example of:
• How to live the Muslim life
• How to be a faithful servant of Allah
• How to keep on the straight path of Islam
• He completed the message of Allah
• He is the last prophet Allah will send
• He brought the message for all people of all times
This is why he is called the ‘Seal of the Prophets’
Social Situation of Makkah Before Islam
The prophet was troubled by the way of life of the
They thought they were superior to others (blacks were
They were often dishonest when trading, were not
charitable, gambled,got drunk, hunted animals and killed
baby girls (female infanticide) as girls were considered4
Section one: Beliefs and Sources of Authority
The Hijra
Muhammad’s work in Makkah
In the year 610 whilst reflecting in the cave of Hira the angel Jibril
urged him to recite( Iqra) Eventually the prophet repeated the
following words from Surah 96:
‘In the name of God who creates man from a mere clot of blood...’
The migration of the prophet became
necessary after the death of his uncle Abu
Talib in the year 619. Up till now his uncle was
providing him with safety but now they would
plot to assassinate the prophet.
Muhammad knew that he had been given a mission by God. He
first shared with just close friends and family.
In the year 620 a group from the city of
Yathrib heard the prophet preach and accepted
Islam. They went back and spread the message.
In the year 613 God commanded him to preach openly and invite
everyone to believe in the one God.
In 622 representatives from Yathrib invited
Muhammad to move to Yathrib as their leader.
As soon as he did the leaders of Makkah started to persecute
Muhammad and his followers.
The prophet accepted and the Muslims moved
to start a new life.
Reasons why they attacked:
This is known as Hijra.
Importance of Hijra
Were proud of their traditions and beliefs and felt Muhammad
was attacking these beliefs.
Shows loyalty to God
Muhammad was a threat to the power they held as people
were following him and not them.
Shows blood ties and tribal ties were less
important than Allah and the prophet
If Muhammad stopped idol worship they would face financial
loss as Makkah benefited from annual pilgrimage. They thought
no one would come to the Ka’abah.
Islam would now be practiced as a complete
way of life and the first Muslim community
would be established.
Muhammad ‘s work in Madina
The Hadith and Sunnah
Had to unite all people living in Yathrib
(Medina). This included; the Makkan Muslims
who had migrated, the Muslims of Yathrib, the
Jews and those who had not accepted Islam
The hadith (teachings) and sunnah( actions) of the prophet
are a sources of authority after the Quran.
The prophet successfully did this by creating
the ‘Constitution of Medina.’ This was a
framework outlining duties and rights of all
people living in the city.
Great care was taken to ensure each saying was genuine.
The prophet built the first mosque in Medina
and this fulfilled a social and religious purpose.
Muhammad also exercised military power in
Medina. He led three battles against the
Makkans. The batttle of Badr, Uhud and
The hadith of the prophet were passed down by word of
mouth for 200 years before being recorded in writing.
Hadith Qudsi are sayings that the prophet was given by God
but are not part of the Quran.
Muhammad’s actions are his sunnah and Muslims should
follow the prophets example as he is the best role model.
The sunnah includes movements of the daily prayers,
customs such as standing when a funeral procession
passes and thanking Allah before a meal.
Section one: Beliefs and Sources of Authority
The shariah is the holy law of Islam based
on Quran and Sunnah.
About 600 verses of the Quran contain
laws concerning family life, food,
inheritance, praying, fasting, war, divorce
and much more.
Muslims believe that Allah alone has the
power to say what is right and wrong.
Scholars have a duty to interpret laws so
that Muslims know how to behave when
dealing with new issues.
All Muslims want to obey Gods but some
do not wish to obey laws worked out by
scholars. They do not think these laws are
God’s laws.
Sunni and Shiah
After the prophets death in 632, there were four caliphs, or successors.
The first was Abu Bakr, he was followed by Umar , then Uthman and finally Ali.
The source of the controversy occurred when the fourth successor, Caliph Ali, took over. Sunnis regard Ali as the fourth
and last of the rightly guided caliphs – the leaders of the Muslims.
But Shiites feel that Ali should have been the first caliph because of his family ties and that the caliphate should pass
down only to direct descendants of Muhammad.
SIMILARITIES between Sunnis and Shiahs
They believe in Allah and His Prophet
They believe in the authority of the Quran
They believe in life after death and the judgement to follow
They both follow the Five Pillars
Saying the Shahadah – Shiahs add ‘and I bear witness that Ali was the friend of Allah’
The practice of Salah – Shiahs prostrate onto earth or a small block of clay from Karbala
Important festivals – Ashura, which commemorates the death of Husayn at Karbala
Places of pilgrimage – they also visit Karbala
How much should be given to the poor – they must give 20% besides Zakah called Khums
Section Two: The Five Pillars
The Five Pillars: The five most important duties: to believe, to pray, to give to charity, to fast and to go on
Shahadah: Muslim declaration of faith. The first pillar of Islam.
Salah: Prayer and worship of Allah, performed under the conditions set by prophet Muhammad. The second pillar of
Wudu: Ritual washing before prayer.
Rak’ah: A sequence of movements in ritual prayer.
Jumuah: Weekly communal salah performed after midday on a Friday.
Du’a: Personal Prayer.
Zakah: Purification of wealth by giving to the poor; an act of obligatory worship for Muslims.
Sawm: Fasting from dawn to dusk during Ramadan, sex and smoking are banned when the believer is engaged in this.
The fourth pillar of Islam
Ramadan: Month during which fasting from dawn to sunset is demanded.
Hajj: Annual pilgrimage to Makkah, which all Muslims must undertake at least once in their lives, unless prevented by
wealth or health. The fifth pillar of Islam.
Pilgrimage: A religious journey.
Makkah: The city where Muhammad was born. The spiritual centre of Islam.
Ritual: A religious ceremony or series of actions.
Customs: Long standing practices and traditions.
Arafrat: A plain near Makkah where pilgrims gather to worship and seek forgiveness. Also known as Mount Arafat or
Mount of Mercy.
Shahadah: Declaration of Faith
Shahadah: To say
1. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah
2. I bear witness that Muhammad is the prophet of Allah.
• There is no room in their lives for any God except
• The belief in Muhammad as the messenger of Allah is
accepting that Islam was given to the Prophet and that
it is the final and complete guidance from Allah for
humans to follow.
• Muslims believe that the purpose of life for human
beings is to worship Allah alone.
Ibadah)Worshipping Allah means serving Allah and
everything a Muslim does is motivated by this idea.
Allah gave humans life and should live it the way Allah
Use of Shahadah:
Repeated in Salah
Last words you hear or say before death
Recited in the adhan
Whisper to a newborn baby
Salah: Prayer
Why do Muslims offer Salah?
• It is commanded in the Quran
• They must remember Allah throughout
the day and prayer helps them do this
• It makes them feel closer to Allah
• It unites them with other Muslims
• It reconfirms their faith
• Considered to be the most important of
the practical prayers
• A way of showing total submission to
Allah ( Prostration/sajud position)
• A way of identifying with the worldwide
Muslim community
Rules that must be observed for prayer:
Perform Wudu
Pray five times a day at set times
Face Makkah
Performing certain actions – standing,
bowing, prostrating and sitting. This must
be repeated in a certain order and a
certain number of times.
Recite in Arabic
Section Two: The Five Pillars
Zakah-Wealthy Muslims must give 2.5% of their to
• Show submission to the will of Allah
• Purifies possessions
• Supports the Ummah
• Removes selfishness
• Creates equality
• Commanded in the Quran
• Muslims have a duty to help others and those in need
and Zakah reminds one that both the rich and poor are
part of the Ummah
• Knowing that Muslims are giving Zakah at the same time
for the same purposes unites the Ummah
• Sharing resources strengthens the Ummah and helps gain
spiritual riches
Helping the poor
Helping people in need
Freeing prisoners
Helping people out of debt
Sawm- Fasting in Ramadan
• It is commanded in the Quran
• It encourages fellowship with other Muslims through the
shared experience of fasting .
• It is a special time to give thanks for the Quran – the
month in which it was revealed
• Fasting is not just a physical experience but a total
commitment of a person’s body and soul as it is seen as a
method of self-control.
• It is like a pathway that brings a Muslim closer to Allah
• Develop self-control
• Spend more time focusing on Salah and other ibadah
• Empathise for those that suffer
• Increase spiritual strength
• Focus on self-purification
• Strengthen the Ummah
Hajj- Pilgrimage to Makkah
Importance of HAJJ
The Hajj is pilgrimage to Makkah. It is the Fifth Pillar of Islam and therefore a very important part of
the Islamic faith. All physically fit Muslims who can afford it should make the visit to Makkah, in Saudi
Arabia, at least once in their lives. Every year around 2 million Muslims from all over the world journey
to Makkah. They stand before the Kaaba, a shrine built by Ibrahim praising Allah together. The Hajjis or
pilgrims wear simple white clothes called Ihram which promote the bonds of Islamic brotherhood and
sisterhood by showing that everyone is equal in the eyes of Allah.
Putting on the Ihram
Going round the Ka’bah seven times (tawaf)
A fast walk between As-Safa and al-Marwa
Visiting Mina for midday prayers
Standing at Arafat from noon to sunset
Visiting Muzdalifah to collect pebbles
Stoning the pillars in Mina
Celebrating Id al-Adha
During hajj the following are forbidden:
Sexual relations
Shave their hair or cut their nails
Use perfume or scented oils
Kill or hunt anything
To argue or fight
To cover the face even women
Wearing clothes with stitches (only applies to men)
Section Two: The Five Pillars
On the second day of the pilgrimage, the pilgrims leave Mina just after dawn to travel to the Plain of Arafat . On
what is known as the "Day of Arafat," the pilgrims spend the entire day standing (or sitting) near the Mount of
Mercy, asking Allah for forgiveness and making supplications.
Muslims around the world who are not at the pilgrimage join them in spirit by fasting for the day. After sunset on
the Day of Arafat, the pilgrims leave and travel to a nearby open plain called Muzdalifah, roughly halfway between
Arafat and Mina. There they spend the night praying, and collecting small stone pebbles to be used the following
• Allah forgives the sins Muslims confess .
• Muslims show commitment to Allah by obeying His command and praying all day in the heat of the sun
• Standing at Arafat is preparation in standing before Allah on the day of judgment
• Arafat is where Adam and Eve were reunited after being thrown out of Eden and is where Adam confessed his
• Sincere repentance leads to pilgrims being cleansed of all sins. Pilgrims often described as being like a new
born baby after this experience. This ritual offers them a second chance.
On the third day, the pilgrims move before sunrise, this time back to Mina. Here they throw their stone pebbles at
pillars that represent Satan. When throwing the stones, the pilgrims recall the story of Satan’s attempt to
discourage Ibrahim from following God’s command to sacrifice his son Ismail. The stones represent Ibraham’s
rejection of Satan and the firmness of his faith.
After casting the pebbles, most pilgrims slaughter an animal (often a sheep or a goat) and give away the meat to
the poor. This is a symbolic act that shows their willingness to part with something that is precious to them, just
as the Prophet Abraham was prepared to sacrifice his son at God’s command. Men shave their heads and women
cut off 2cm and many return to normal clothes.
Mount safa
and Marwa
Mount of
Eid ul
Stoning at
Collecting stones
at Muzdalifah
Section Three: Worship
Mosque: A Muslim place of worship
Qiblah: The direction of Makkah.
Mihrab: A niche indicating the direction of
Minbar: A pulpit for giving Friday sermons.
Mu’adhin(Muezzin): The Islamic call to
prayer( the person who calls).
Adhan: The call to prayer.
Imam: A person who leads communal prayer.
Madrassah: A Muslim school attached to a
mosque where young Muslims study Islam.
Eid ul Fitr: Celebration of the end of
fasting after Ramadan.
Eid ul Adha: Celebration of the prophet
Ibrahim’s willingness to sacrifice his son for
Allah. Ends the period of Hajj.
• There is an atmosphere of peace and tranquillity
• Worshippers can concentrate on Allah, without any
• The dirt and bustle are left outside and Muslims can feel
a sense of purity as they stand before Allah.
• The word ‘imam’ simply refers to a person who stands in
front and leads the formal prayers.
• The people follow his movements and listen to his words,
which tell them when to move to the next stage of their
• At the Friday congregational prayers (Jummah) the imam
usually gives a sermon. This is important because the imam
will outline some teachings from the Quran – explain its
meaning and how it should be applied.
• The Imam will teach the children from an early age to learn to
recite portions of the Quran and to understand its teaching .
• He leads prayers at weddings and funerals
• The Imam gives advice and counselling to Muslims
• The Imam visits those that are sick or in prison
• The imam helps apply the rules of the Shariah in the
Muslim’s daily life – halal and haram
• He extends the ummah by giving guidance and instruction to
new converts.
• He stands as a role model showing how to live as a faithful
Muslim in a non-Muslim society
• The imam makes sure Islam is kept pure and not influenced
by secular western culture
The Mosque: External Features
Dome: Many Muslims think of this as a symbol of
space therefore emphasising that Allah is the
creator of the universe.
• The circumference of the dome represents the
never ending, eternal nature of God.
• The structure of the dome enables sound to be
amplified so that all worshippers can hear the
• The vastness of the dome means that air can
circulate easily making the experience of salah
more tranquil.
Minaret: A tall tower from which worshippers are
called to prayer.
• Should be tallest structure in the community so
that members can spot it from far away, therefore
becoming a constant reminder of faith.
• It is used for the call to prayer. A man called a
muezzin (or mu’adhin) has the job of climbing to
the top and reciting the Adhan.
This is the Islamic symbol:
The five points of the star symbolise the five pillars
of Islam.
The moon is a symbol of Islam as the faith to light.
The Mosque: Internal Features
Mihrab: one wall of the prayer hall in a mosque has a niche or alcove which shows the qiblah, direction of Makkah.
Minbar: a small platform from where the imam gives the khutbah (sermon) to the worshippers .
Wudu Area: Muslims must perform ritual wash of wudu before praying as one must be in state of purity before standing in
Prayer Hall: Large room with prayer carpets, no imagery , furniture or statues are to be found here. Helps believers focus on the
oneness of God.
Shoe Racks: The masjid is a place of prostration and so must be clean. Shoes are to be removed before entering the prayer hall.
Section Three: Worship
Importance of the Mosque
Aids to Worship
• Offers a sense of identity- Belong to a religious
community, bound together by spirituality and a deep
love for Allah.
• Visual reminder of their duty to God.
• A feeling of community – the mosque helps to give a
strong feeling of brotherhood especially when united
in prayer.
• An encouragement of faith – being together gives
Muslims encouragement to face up to the difficulties
of living in a secular society. Support one another in
overcoming temptations.
Qiblah compass
Helps work out direction of prayer.
Muslims direct prayers towards Makkah
as the Ka’abah is situated there. The
Ka’abah is described as Baith’ullah
‘House of God.’
Prayer Mat
Qur’an stand
Facilities and services provided by the mosque for local
• Education in the madrassah (mosque school)
• Family support service and advice bureau
• Youth club
• Conduct Weddings/ Nikkah
• Funerals-Have a mortuary where the body is prepared for
burial- final bathing/shrouding/coffin. Janazah salah
offered by imam. Transport for deceased to the
• Charity activities.
• Invite guest Speakers
Prayer beads
The prayer mat is used to ensure that
the place of prayer is clean. Prayer
mats are usually decorated, including
much colour and pattern work.
The Qur’an is believed to be God’s
exact word and so copies of the
Quran must be treated with the
greatest respect.
Muslims do wudu before touching it
and in order for it to not touch an
unclean surface or the ground a stand
is used.
Used by Muslims to offer private
Usually the names of God are chanted
on the beads.
Most tasbih’s contain 99 beads , for
each of God’s names.
‘Fitr’ means to break and this particular
festival marks the breaking of the fasting of
It can also signify the break-up of bad deeds
due to increased self-control
• Eid is a time of forgiveness and making
• Eid unites human beings in common joy. It
remind Muslims of the importance of
harmony, human equality and compassion
for all.
• Eid is also a time for giving and sharing,
allows Muslims to reflect on their duty to
help people who are less fortunate than
• Eid is the time for Muslims to appreciate
their family and their friends
This is the second important festival celebrated by Muslim communities.
EID UL-ADHA happens during the month of pilgrimage to Mecca .
Celebrations involve the sacrifice of an animal . It is done in
remembrance of the story of the prophet Ibrahim who was commanded
by God to sacrifice his son Ismail. This was a test of his faith to see if he
was willing to obey God no matter what.
The meat is usually divided into three portions. One portion is given to
the poor, another is offered as a gift to friends and relatives and the third
is kept by the family.
Eid ul-Adha is celebrated in Britain by attending the Mosque for a special
prayer. Local Muslims butchers slaughter the animal. The communities
meet for celebrations.
• It helps those who were not on hajj celebrate the spirit of hajj with
family and friends
• The sacrifice of an animal reminds Muslims that they should be
prepare to give up everything for Allah
• The history of various activities behind hajj reminds Muslims that
Islam has existed since the very beginning of time
Section Four: Personal Lifestyle
A Muslims lifestyle is influenced by belief in God and the
teachings of Islam.
The perfect lifestyle is one that obeys the commands of God,
adheres to the sunnah and positively impacts society.
The five pillars play a important part in a Muslims lifestyle.
Lifestyle: Way of life.
Halal: Any action or thing which is lawful
Haram: Any action or thing which is forbidden
Modesty: Humble manner or appearance
Purdah: Women covering their face and hands when in
Hijab: Modest dress for women, often reference to veil or
headscarf worn by women.
Ummah: All Muslims are regarded as part of a
brotherhood; the nation of Islam.
Concepts of halal and haram
There are five groups in which actions fall:
1. Haram – forbidden, for example sex outside marriage
2. Makruh – discouraged, for example divorce
3. Mubah – neutral
4. Mustahab – recommended, for example du’a prayer
5. Fard or wajib – obligatory, for example observing the Five
Food Preparation
Halal and Haram
The significance of following halal and haram laws.
• They are commanded by Allah in the Qur’an and Muslim
believe that obeying Allah enables them to lead a good
life and brings rewards in the hereafter.
• They were followed and taught by the Prophet
Muhammad and all Muslims should follow his example.
• Observing halal and haram clearly identifies one as a
Muslim and strengthens the fellowship between
• Observing halal and haram constantly reminds Muslims
of the teachings of Allah and that Islam is the way of life
Muslims are not allowed to drink alcohol because it
leads to forgetting about Allah.
• A state of drunkenness leads to many other sins e.g.
aggressive behaviour, lack of control over actions,
adultery, rape etc.
• Prayers cannot be offered in an intoxicated state.
• The Qur’an mentions that alcohol is haram for
Why do Muslims keep these laws?
• It is healthier to avoid alcohol
• A Muslim believes that Allah has lent them their body,
so they must look after it, stay on the straight path in
order to reach paradise.
Muslims have very strict regulations about what they can
and cannot eat. What Muslims can eat is called halal and
what they are not allowed to eat is called haram.
• Muslims are only allowed to eat meat which has been
slaughtered by having its throat slit and the blood
drained from it whilst the Shahadah is recited.
• This means Muslims cannot eat the ordinary meat in the
UK because it is slaughtered by being stunned first.
• Muslim meat is called halal meat and has to be
purchased from halal butchers. However, Muslims can
eat Jewish meat, known as Kosher meat, if it is
slaughtered in exactly the same way.
“And do not eat the meat of an animal upon which the
name of Allah has not been mentioned”. (Quran)
The prophet stated that The prophet said “A Muslim who
tosses a Haram morsel (small amount of food ) in his
stomach will have no deed accepted from him for 40 days”
What are the implications of these rules?
• Some areas do not have halal butcher shops or halal
stores that sell halal food
• Some schools don’t provide halal food either
• Many service stations do not have suitable food
• Halal restaurants are hard to find
There is a hadith that says that on the Day of
Judgement everyone will be asked four things
1, their body and how they used it
2, their life and how they spent it.
3, their wealth and how they earned it.
4, their knowledge and what they did with it.
Section Four: Personal Lifestyle
Muslim Dress: Purdah and Hijab
There are special dress laws for women:
• They must cover their head and hair when outside
the home (this covering is called a hijab) and some
Muslim women cover their face as well with only a
slit for the eyes (this covering is called a burqa).
They must wear a covering garment over their
clothes when they go out of the home.
Neither men nor women are allowed to wear clothes
normally worn by the opposite sex.
Muslims are not allowed to appear naked before
anyone else except for medical purposes, which
means school showers are not allowed for Muslims.
“ Believing women should cat their garments over
themselves (when out); that is most convenient, that
they should be recognized (as such) and not be
Different attitudes to Hijab
Why women choose to wear the burqa or veil:
• It gives security
• People judge them for who they are not what they look
• Many Muslim women wear the veil as an expression of
their identity and commitment
• Many Muslim women believe they are interpreting the
Quran as best as possible by wearing the hijab in order
to dress modestly
What the implications of wearing Muslim dress in a
western society
Wearing the veil has become a political issue in some
countries (Banned in France)
Many feminists consider the veil as oppressive and
unfair to women
May experience discrimination, abuse and
intolerance in society.
“Say to believing men that they should lower their gaze
and guard their modesty …”Quran)
The Ummah
Islam unites all Muslims everywhere, no what their race or culture
Having one worldwide community reflects on the Tawhid of Allah
It helps and gives strength to individual Muslims
Many aspects of Islam are communal in nature
At Prayer: All Muslims face the qiblah (direction of the Ka’bah) which is the hub of Islam.
Wherever you go in the world you will see the actions of Salah performed when Muslims
Reading the Quran: Muslims around the world speak different languages but yet when
they read the Quran they use the Arabic language.
Giving Zakat: Every year Muslims give a percentage of their wealth to help other people.
Going on Hajj: On pilgrimage to Makkah Muslims gather from all over the world. It doesn’t
matter whether if you are black, white, male or female – everyone is equal in the sight of
Section Four: Personal Lifestyle
Respect, Religious Duties and Good Actions
Respect and Good actions
‘You who believe, do not let one set of people make
fun of another; do not insult one another by calling
each other names; do not spy on one another, or
spread rumours about each other or criticise
people behind their backs’ (Quran)
A true believer is one who wants for his brother
what he wants for himself( Hadith)
Be generous with time and money(sadaqah )
• Carry out the five pillars
• Celebrate the festivals
• Obey laws of God
• Follow sunnah
Some Muslims must take on special roles
Experts in Quran and Shariah
Judges to settle disputes(divorce)
Representatives who will speak for ummah
Imams who lead the community on path of
The importance of Lifestyle and Community
Not enough to just believe. Must action faith.
If you do not live a Muslim lifestyle you are not a
Islam is a way of life followed from cradle to
The fundamental belief that there is ‘no God but
Allah’ means that a Muslim’s lifestyle must show
there is nothing in life that is kore important than
Service to God should always come first. Before
making money, before relationships, fashion and
family traditions.
The second part of the Shahadah honours
Muhammad as the messenger of God and what this
means for the lifestyle of a Muslim is that the
prophet set the standard and they must aspire to
copy him.
The community is important as members can
motivate one another, help in times of need and
offer advice.
Section Five : Family Life
Key Terms
Marriage: A legal union between a man and a woman.
Willing Consent: Both parties agree to marriage.
Dowry: Wedding gift given by the husband to the wife, usually in the form of money.
Divorce: Legal ending of a marriage.
Arranged Marriage: A marriage for which parents take a leading role in choosing a marriage partner for their son or
Polygamy: Being married to more than one person at once.
Pre-marital sex: A sexual relationship which occurs before marriage.
Adultery: Sex outside of marriage where one or both of the couple are already married to someone else(an affair).
Homosexuality: A sexual relationship with someone of the same sex.
The Marriage Ceremony
Divorce and Remarriage
Marriage in Islam
Marriage is recommended in Islam as it is a duty to
marry and have children.
Islamic marriage has three key features:
• Willing consent of both partners
• The marriage contract
• The dowry
Two witnesses are needed during the ceremony.
The marriage contract is drawn up by the couple or
their families.
Included an agreement about what will happen if the
marriage fails.
Muslims are encouraged to treat the marriage like a
lifelong commitment but the contract lasts as long as
both partners stick to it.
Circumstances in which divorce can be approved in UK:
• Adultery
• Unreasonable behaviour
• Desertion
Divorce is allowed in Islam when there is no chance of a
marriage surviving.
Celibacy (not having sexual relations) is disapproved
in Islam as it may lead top psychological problems. All
Muslims should marry because:
Prophet (pbuh) was married
Sexual desire is a git form Allah and needs to be
fulfilled within marriage
Marriage is Allah’s intention for man and woman.
To share love and companionship
To have sex within boundaries laid out by Allah
To have children and bring them up as Muslims
Muslims dislike divorce because:
Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) , the perfect example did not
He said that divorce is the most hated of all things that Allah has
permitted “ the most detested act that God has permitted is
divorce “(Hadith)
Divorce can damage lives of children
Muslims accept divorce because:
Marriage is a contract in Islam not a promise to Allah
Qur’an allows divorce
Qur’an has rules on divorce - women & children should be cared
Better for children to live with divorced parents rather than to
live with bitterness & hatred.
Procedures that need to be followed to divorce in Islam.
• 3 months waiting period where both partners have time to
rethink about their decision.
• Waiting period also allows wife to check if she is pregnant
• At the end of this time if both partners agree to divorce they
can go their separate ways.
In Islam only the husband can divorce. If the wife wishes to
divorce she has right of “khul”- she can ask him divorce her.
If husband refuses then she can go to Muslim “Qazi” (judge and
file for the dissolution of her marriage.
Section Five : Family Life
“…marry two or three or four women of your
choice, but if you fear that you will not be able to
deal fairly with them then marry one” (Quran)
The Quran allows men to have four wives. This is
known as polygamy.
This ruling came after the battle of Uhud which left
many women widow and fatherless children.
Polygamy was a made permissible to support
those who were suffering. Men are not to marry
out of lust and desire.
Arranged Marriages
Sexual Relationships Outside Marriage
Muslim Attitudes to sex outside of marriage
(Pre-marital sex, homosexuality, cohabitation and adultery
are forbidden and should be punished according to the
Promiscuity is seen as wrong
Islam Teaches
Ideal marriage partner is the one who loves Allah
Main purpose of sex=procreation
Muslims should not behave in sexual manner towards
Adultery is a great sin
Sex should be kept special for marriage
“When a husband and wife share intimacy it is rewarded
and is a blessing from Allah ; just as they should be
punished if they engaged in illicit sex”(Hadith)
The Contribution of the Mosque to family Life
How mosques keep family together – activities at
the mosques
Social centre which offers activities for boys and
Imams available to give advice in difficult situations.
Help with financial difficulties
Special Eid services
Ways in which mosque supports families
Social events that all family can join in
Giving guidance on legal matters like divorce
Giving Zakat to help families
After school clubs to teach children about Islam
Meeting place where parents can discuss difficulties
& celebrate success with others.
In traditional Muslim societies men and women do
not mix freely.
When time of marriage comes for them their parents
will find and introduce them to a suitable person.
They will identify a good match based on interests,
background and education.
Arranged marriages are not forced marriages.
The young person does not have to marry the person
their parents have introduced them to.
Muslims do not approve of finding a partner using
chat rooms or gatherings such as pubs, clubs and
In an arranged marriage love between the two comes
after the wedding.
Arranged marriages have a greater success rate in
comparison to love marriages.
Homosexuality: A sexual relationship with
someone of the same sex
Many Muslim’s believe that homosexuality is a
grave sin and that homosexuality is a product of
an individual’s environment, not as a result of
their genetics.
These Muslim’s believe that humans have a
choice and that they must choose not to be
homosexual, just as an alcoholic must choose
not to drink.
The Qur’an teaches
“If two men among you commit indecency punish
them both. If they repent and mend their ways,
let them be. Allah is forgiving and merciful.”
-Quran makes statements against homosexuality.
-Prophet’s Hadith states ‘kill the one who is doing
it and the one it is being done to.’
-Story of Prophet Lut in the Qur’an is evidence
that homosexuality is forbidden in Islam.
Worship in the Home
Prayers offered in the home
Study of the Quran
Recitation of the Quran
Celebration of Festivals
Ceremonies linked to childbirth conducted in
the home.
Halal food laws are followed in the home
Section Six: Justice and Equality
Key Terms
Justice: Bringing about what is right, fair according to the law or making up for a wrong that has been
Equality: The principle that people should be given the same rights and opportunities regardless of sex,
religion , race, etc.
Prejudice: Unfairly judging someone before you get to know them
Discrimination: To act against someone on the basis of sex, race, religion. This is a negative action.
Gender: Another word for a person’s sex.
Religion: A set of beliefs, values and practices usually based on the teachings of a spiritual leader.
Race: A group of people with the same ethnic background
Justice and Equality
One of God’s names is ‘The Just’ and so Muslims
have a duty to make sure everyone gets what they
are entitled to.
Those who commit injustice and wrong-doing on
earth shall be severely punished (Quran)
God has commanded that Muslims treat everyone
fairly even the enemy.
Injustice is the opposite of justice. Many people on
earth are treated unjustly because of the colour of
their skin, their sex and religion.
Islam teaches that that the only thing people
should be judged upon is how well they lived a life
of obedience to Allah.
Causes of Prejudice and Discrimination
Ignorance and Fear- Not understanding differences so
they may disrespect them or fear them. E.g. Not
understanding why people have different accents, skin
colours, traditions and beliefs
SeparationIf groups do not integrate they will never get to know one
another or understand differences in practice.
Stereotypes created by media
If we have no personal encounter with a group of people
e.g. blacks, then our image of them may come from
television, magazines and newspapers. The impression
given my these sources may not always be accurate.
Attitudes of role models
The way parents, teachers, politicians and influential
people treat people who are different from them sets the
standard for others to follow. This is why some prejudices
are a result of upbringing.
The behaviour of a very small minority
The way some people in a particular group behave leads
to prejudice against others.
E.g. all Muslims are ISIS, Al-Qaeda, Boko Haram etc.
Prejudice and Discrimination
Prejudice=‘pre-judge’ someone
You can be prejudiced in someone’s favour or
prejudiced against them.
e.g. ‘I've never met a Muslim but I don’t like them’
or ‘poor people are lazy’
Islam is against prejudice as it is unreasonable,
unfair and unjust.
Discrimination is prejudice in action.
Religious prejudice and Discrimination
Name calling, rudeness and lack of consideration for
people of faith. Can be directed at any religious
• Those people whose religion requires them to dress
differently are often targeted e.g. Orthodox Jews
who wear the skull cap ‘kippah’, Muslims who wear
headscarves and Sikhs wearing turban.
• Places of worship and graveyards may also be
targeted by vandals.
• Islam promotes tolerance and understanding
between religions:
‘I worship not what you worship and you worship not
what I worship. To you your religion, to me my religion.
Race and Disability Discrimination
Islam is ‘colour blind’ it does not take notice of
people’s skin colour.
Allah is the creator of all human life and he created
all of humanity with equal love. No one race above
The prophet promoted racial equality in his final
sermon he stated ‘ no Arab is better than a nonArab and no white is better than a black and no black
better than a white…indeed the noblest amongst
17 you
is the one who is most deeply conscious of God.’
Section Six: Justice and Equality
Role and Status of Women in Islam
Muslim attitudes to equal rights for women in religion
“Allah created men and women form a single soul”
(surah 4.1)
• There is no sexism in the Qur’an.
• Women rights guaranteed by the Islamic law :
She can own property
She can have a job
She has the right to inherit property
She has control of her wealth
She has the right get a divorce
She has the right to education
She should be paid equally for equal work
Islam teaches men and women are equal but have
different roles.
“All people are equal ... as the teeth of a comb... nor a
male over a female. (Hadith)
Women’s Rights
Changing attitudes to roles of men and women
in UK
100 years ago only 15% of married women in the
UK worked
1970 Act gives women equal pay as men
1979, Margret Thatcher became 1st female prime
minister – role model for women
Many argued her success was due to her
After 2 world wars attitudes changed as women
had to work during war.
1918 some women were allowed to vote.
1945 – post wars women wanted equality
Unfortunately some Muslims go
against God’s laws and try to
confine women to the home- Saudi
Arabia women’s right to drive.
“Men are the protectors and maintainers of women
because Allah gave them more strength.” (Surah 4.2)
If family values are good then society will be good.
Mohammed (pbuh) said “paradise lies at the feet of your
mother”. This encourages Muslim women to take pride
in their role has homemakers.
Religious Practice
Daily responsibility
Daily life and
Follow 5 pillars
Equal judgement on
judgement day based
upon their faith and
obedience of Allah
Own property and run a
Friday prayers at the
mosque are compulsory
Attendance at the
mosque is voluntary
depending on her family
Responsible for the
financial welfare of the
Right to good education
Become teachers ,
doctors , lawyers etc.
Physically stronger
Protectors of women.
Duty to bear children and
bring them, up as
Keep a Halal Home
Choose to work outside
the home
Emotionally weaker
Can expect to be cared