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Unit 3 – Regional Civilizations
•Expanding ZONES of exchange
& encounter
1
2
5
3
4
4
Exploration
1415 - 1796
Causes
• Crusades created a huge demand for spices
– Pepper
– Cinnamon
– Cloves
• Muslims controlled the trade routes that went
OVER LAND to China
• Desire to increase profit (eliminate the
“middle man”) led to overseas exploration
• Renaissance inspired
new technologies
allowed for oversea
voyages
• Cartographers made
accurate maps
• Astrolabe allowed
sailors to determine
latitude at sea
• Caravel (picture) allowed sailors to sail into
the wind
– Had square & triangular sails
– Had many masts like Chinese ships
Ch. 15 - The First Global Age
Europe and Asia (1415-1796)
• A desire to share in the rich spice trade of
the East spurred Europeans to explore the
oceans.
• Because of its location, Southeast Asia
was affected by the cultures of China and
India.
• Europeans used military power to build
trading empires in Southeast Asia
• China, Korea, and Japan limited contact
with western nations.
The Search for SPICES
1. Europeans take to the seas
•
•
WHY?
HOW?
2. Portuguese Pioneers (first) – they go EAST
•
Coast of Africa
to India
3. Spain and Columbus get into the “game”
–
They go WEST
4. Line of DEMARCATION – divides the
world (non-European into 2 zones for Spain
and Portugal; later moved by the Treaty of
Tordesillas).
Portugal Leads the Way…
• Henry the Navigator
– 1450s
– Charted the coast of west coast of
Africa
– Hoped to spread Christianity & find
African gold
• Bartholomeu Dias
– 1488
– Rounded the Cape of Good Hope
(southern tip of Africa)
– Opened a trade route to Asia
• Vasco da Gama
–
–
–
–
Reached Calicut, India 1497
Half the ships were lost on the trip home
Many sailors died of scurvy – lack of vitamin C
A 3000% profit was made!
Portugal Dominates…
• Had loads of outposts
along the east coast of
Africa & ports in
Southeast Asia
• Made many enemies
along the way
– Many Asian merchants
would avoid their ports
Spain gets in the game…
• Christopher Columbus
– Italian, but Funded by Isabella
& Ferdinand of SPAIN
– Wanted to find a faster trade
route to the East Indies
– Set sail August 3, 1492
– Saw land on October 12, 1492
– Thought he reached the East
Indies
• He didn’t & millions of people
will die
• Ferdinand Magellan - was a Portuguese explorer. Was born in
Sabrosa, in northern Portugal, and served King Charles I of Spain in search of a
westward route to the "Spice Islands" (Indonesia).
–
–
–
–
Attempted to circumnavigate the world
1519 – 1522
Sailed west around Cape Horn
Landed in the Philippines
• Conquered it for Spain
• Was killed - Magellan was hit by a
bamboo spear and later surrounded and finished
off with other weapons
– His crew finished
the voyage
Spain & Portugal Have Issues
•
•
•
•
Portugal and Spain fight for control of land
1493 - Pope draws the Line of Demarcation
Spain gets land west of the line
Portugal gets land east of the line
Spain
Portugal
Netherlands (the Dutch) Steps In…
• 1602 – Dutch East India Company is
formed by wealthy Dutch merchants
• Had a monopoly (exclusive business
rights/control) on the Spice Islands
• Dutch made ALOT of money
• “Tulip-mania”
Dutch Outposts
European Footholds in
Southeast Asia and India
1. How did the Portuguese and the
Dutch build empires in the East?
2. How did Spain control the
Philippines?
3. How did the decline of Mughal
India affect European traders?
Portuguese and Dutch Trading Empires
Portugal used firepower to win control of the rich
Indian Ocean spice trade.
In less than 50 years, the Portuguese had built a trading empire with
military and merchant outposts rimming the southern seas.
Despite their sea power, the Portuguese were not strong enough to
conquer much territory on land.
The Dutch were the first Europeans to challenge
Portuguese domination in Asia.
They used their sea power to set up colonies and trading posts around
the world.
The Dutch East India Company seized Malacca from the Portuguese.
Soon after, they were able to enforce a monopoly in the Spice Islands,
controlling shipments to Europe as well as much of the trade within
Southeast Asia.
Spain and the Philippines
•In 1521, Magellan had claimed the Philippines for
Spain.
•Within fifty years, Spain had conquered and colonized
the islands.
•Unlike other people in Southeast Asia, the Filipinos
were not united. As a result, they were easily
conquered.
•The Philippines became a key link to Spain’s overseas
trading empire. The Spanish shipped silver mined in
Mexico and Peru across the Pacific to the Philippines.
From there, they used the silver to buy goods in China.
Mughal India and European Traders
Before the 1700s, the Mughal empire was larger,
richer, and more powerful than any kingdom in
Europe.
• While European merchants were dazzled by India, the sophisticated
Mughal civilization was unimpressed by the Europeans.
• When Europeans sought trading rights, the Mughal emperors saw no
threat in granting them.
In the early 1700s, the Mughal central government
collapsed.
• French and English traders battled each other for control of India, while
war erupted in Europe between England and France.
• The British East India Company used an army of British troops and
sepoys (Indian troops) to drive the French out, take over Bengal, and spread
its influence into other parts of India.
European Trade With China
•The Europeans who reached Asia in the 1500s were very
impressed by what they saw . The Chinese, however, saw the
Europeans as “southern barbarians,” lacking civilized ways.
•The Ming dynasty had ended overseas exploration in the mid1400s. (Remember Zheng He?)
•Portuguese traders reached China by sea in 1514. The Ming
eventually allowed them a trading post at Macao. Because they
were uninterested in European trading products, the Ming
demanded payment for Chinese goods in gold or silver.
After the Manchus conquered China, the Manchu Qing dynasty
maintained the Ming policy of restricting foreign trade.
The Europeans continued to press to expand trade to other areas of
China.
Japan and Foreign Traders
The Japanese at first welcomed western traders.
They acquired western firearms and built castles
modeled on the European design.
The Tokugawa shoguns grew increasingly hostile toward foreigners.
They saw the foreigners as agents of an invading force.
They suspected that the many Japanese Christians were loyal to the pope, rather
than to Japanese leaders.
They disliked the competition among Christian missionaries.
By 1638, the Tokugawas had barred all western
merchants and forbidden Japanese to travel
abroad. They also ended foreign trade.
Homework – Due Friday 5/23/14
• DBQ 9 – Civilizations of the
Americas
• Chart on the Mayans, Aztecs
and Incas
• Reminder – Ch 15 photo
captions due Friday, too!
Civilizations of
the Americas
Mayan
Aztecs
Incas
Location
(Capital?)
Time period
MAJOR Achievements &
Accomplishments
Before the arrival of
the Europeans, there
were three advanced
civilizations that
developed in central
and South America
1
The Olmecs and the Mayas
OLMECS
Were the earliest American civilization
Had powerful priests and
aristocrats at the top of society
Built ceremonial centers
MAYAS
Developed complex irrigation methods
for farming
Built towering pyramid temples in
Tikal
Traded extensively across Middle
America
Spread influence through trade
Developed calendar
Introduced tradition of priestly
leadership and religious
devotion
Developed hieroglyphic writing
system
Developed accurate calendar and
numbering system
Abandoned cities around A.D. 900
Mayan Temple
(located in Tikal)
Approx. 154 feet
1
Arrival of the Aztecs
• In the late 1200s, nomadic ancestors of
the Aztecs migrated into the Valley of
Mexico.
• The Aztecs built the city of
Tenochtitlán.
• In the 1400s, the Aztecs greatly
expanded their territory through
conquests and alliances.
By 1500, the Aztec empire spread from the Gulf of Mexico
to the Pacific Ocean and numbered 30 million people.
1
Aztec Society
GOVERNMENT
& SOCIETY
RELIGION
LEARNING
The empire had a
single ruler.
Priests were a special
class.
Slaves could own and
buy freedom.
The sun god was the
chief Aztec god.
Priests recorded
Aztec knowledge
and ran schools for
sons of nobles.
Long-distance traders
traveled around the
empire and beyond.
Aztecs practiced human Some priests were
sacrifice on a massive astronomers or
scale.
mathematicians.
Inca
• Located in the Andes
Mountains
• Cuzco – capital city
• Leader is called the
Sapa Inca
– Had absolute power
– Claimed to be the son of
the sun
– Gold was his symbol –
“sweat of the sun”
– Only wore an outfit
once…and then it was
burned
• Located in the Andes
Mountains
• Cuzco – capital city
• Leader is called the
Sapa Inca
– Had absolute power
– Claimed to be the son of
the sun
– Gold was his symbol –
“sweat of the sun”
– Only wore an outfit
once…and then it was
burned
Incan Roads
• Awesome form of
communication
• Help to unite the empire
• All roads led through Cuzco
• Wound more than 14,000
miles
• Allowed armies to move
throughout the empire
Bridges were built over gorges
2
The Incan Empire
The Incas built a complex civilization that
relied on order and absolute authority.
• They ran an efficient government with a chain of command
reaching to every village.
• They imposed their own language and religion on the
people.
• They created one of the great road systems in history,
allowing armies and news to travel rapidly around the
empire.
• They posted runners throughout the empire to carry news of
revolts and soldiers to quickly crush them.
• They prohibited ordinary people from using the roads at all.
2
Incan Government
Chapter 16 - The First Global Age
Europe, the Americas and Africa (1492-1750)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Desire for riches, as well as religious zeal,
encouraged Spanish explorers to travel to the
Americas. (God, Gold & Glory, again?)
Native American, African and European traditions
blended to form the distinct cultures of the Americas.
During the 1600’s and 1700’s England and France
claimed territories in North America.
The Atlantic slave trade sent millions of Africans to
the Americas
European explorations resulted in a global exchange
of people, animals, food, plants, technology and
disease.
Conquest in the Americas
• What were the results of the first
encounters between the Spanish and
Native Americans?
• How did Spanish conquistadors
conquer the Aztec and Incan empires?
• Why were the Spanish victorious?
God, Glory, & Gold
• Conquistadors did
it for the Glory of
it all!
• They saw
themselves as
heroes
God, Glory, & Gold
• The Americas were rich
in gold and silver
• They were the most
valuable resources
shipped from Spanish
America
• Inflation increased in
Spain b/c value of silver
decreased
First Encounters
In 1492, Christopher Columbus landed in the West Indies, in
the Caribbean. He encountered the Taíno people, who were
friendly and generous toward the Spanish.
Spanish conquistadors, or conquerors, followed in the
wake of Columbus. They settled on Caribbean islands, seized
gold from the Taínos, and forced them to convert to
Christianity.
Meanwhile, smallpox, measles and influenza carried by the
Europeans wiped out village after native village. Native
Americans had no immunity, or resistance, to such
diseases.
The Conquistadors
CORTÉS IN MEXICO
Hernan Cortés landed on the Mexican
coast in 1519.
Cortés arranged alliances with
discontented peoples who hated their Aztec
overlords.
The Aztec emperor, Moctezuma, thought
Cortés might be a god. He offered tribute
to Cortés and welcomed him to
Tenochtitlán.
When relations grew strained, the Aztecs
drove the Spanish out of Tenochtitlán.
In 1521, Cortés returned and captured
and demolished Tenochtitlán.
PIZARRO IN PERU
Francisco Pizarro arrived in
Peru in 1532, just after the
conclusion of a bloody civil
war.
Helped by Indian allies,
Pizarro captured the new
king, Atahualpa, and killed
thousands of his followers.
The Spanish then overran
the Incan heartland.
Why Were the Spanish Victorious?
1. The Spanish had superior military technology,
such as muskets, cannons, and armor. They used
horses, which frightened some Indians, who had
never seen such animals.
2. The Spanish were able to take advantage of
division and discontent among the Indians. In
fact, Indians provided the Spanish with much of
their fighting power.
3. Disease brought by the Europeans weakened the
Aztecs and Incas.
4. Many Indians believed that the disasters they
suffered marked the end of the world.
Remaking the Americas
 Native American, African and
European traditions blended
to form the distinct cultures
of the Americas
 The Spanish introduced new
forms of government, religion,
economy and culture to the
Americas. Spain kept strict
control over the colonies
 A new social structure
developed. Their art,
buildings and daily lives were
influenced by all 3 cultures
Other Economic Benefits
• Latin America has a good
climate for growing sugar
cane
• Plantations were needed
• A large number of workers
were needed to work on the
plantation
• The encomienda system
was introduced (A system of
production in Spain’s New World
possessions which granted permission to
conquistadors to enslave as many people
needed to work a plantation.)
The Encomienda System
• Spanish monarch granted conquistadors
encomiendas
• The conquistadors were allowed to
demand labor or tribute from Native
Americans in a certain area
• Basically, it was a system to enslave
the Native Americans (feudalism in
the Americas)
• Trade began to decline by the 1700s
– England & France begin to dominate in the 1700s
TRADING EMPIRES
European
Nation
France
Areas Colonized
(from Colony)
North America (Canada)
England North America (NEW England /
Hampshire / York / Jersey)
Spain
Exports
South America (Inca/Aztec
Empires – destroyed)
Portugal Eastern portion of South
America (today – Brazil)
Netherlands Southeast Asia (Malacca & the
Spice Islands)
Land Claims in the Americas
By 1675, Spain, France, Britain, and Portugal possessed sizable
overseas empires. Trade ships carried goods between Europe
and the Americas and Africa.
Land Claims in the Americas About 1750
P.S. = Challenging Spanish Power
•To get around Spain’s strict control
over colonial trade, smugglers traded
illegally with Spanish colonists.
•Dutch, English, and French pirates
preyed on Spanish treasure ships.
Some of these pirates, called
privateers, even operated with the
approval of European governments.
For example, England’s Queen
Elizabeth knighted Francis Drake
(“Sir”) for his daring raids on Spanish
treasure ships.
•The Dutch, English, and French
hunted for other gold empires and for
a northwest passage to Asia.
Turbulent Centuries in Africa
• 1400’s Europeans traded
directly with West Africans
(Songhai)
• 1500’s Atlantic Slave Trade
begins. Africans are shipped
to Americas as slaves.
• 1600’s New states form in
West Africa based on slave
trade.
• 1700’s Slave trade peaks.
Disease and death were common. Up to 25
Tens of thousands
percent of a slave ship's Africans died during
the voyage. The captain and crew struggled to
keep their valuable cargo alive. They forced the • 1834 Britain outlaws slavery
Africans to dance on deck for exercise.
in its empire. WHY?
Sometimes they force-fed Africans who would
rather die than suffer further.
Why Africans?
• Africans were
already immune
to European
diseases
• Used to warm
climate
• Had useful skills
in farming,
mining, and
metalworking
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
• Rememberslavery has been
going on for a long,
long, long time
• began in the
1500s to fill the
need for cheap
labor in the
Americas
• Europeans seldom captured the slaves
– relied on African traders to bring those captured to the
coast
• captives were exchanged for textiles,
metalwork, rum, tobacco, weapons, and
gunpowder
Middle Passage
• Ocean route
between Africa
& the
Americas
• Very
tumultuous
Triangular Trade
The Atlantic slave trade formed one part of a three-legged trade network
know as the triangular trade.
Destinations of Enslaved Africans
1500–1870
Impact of the Trans Atlantic
Slave Trade
 About 12 million slaves
actually made it to the
Americas
 Another estimated 12
million died either in
transit or while being
captured
 Many African tribes
were wiped out forever
Changes in Europe
• How did European explorations lead to a
global exchange?
• What impact did the commercial revolution
and mercantilism have on European
economies?
• How did these changes affect ordinary
people?
A Commercial Revolution
The opening of direct links with Asia, Africa, and the Americas had farreaching economic consequences for Europeans.
Prices began to rise in Europe, as part of the cycle of inflation.
European inflation had several causes:
•
•
•
As the population grew, the demand for goods and services rose.
Because goods were scarce, sellers could raise their prices.
The increased flow of gold and silver from the Americas led to more
money in circulation.
Expanded trade and the push for overseas empires spurred the growth of
European capitalism, the investment of money to make a profit.
Entrepreneurs and capitalists made up a new business class. Together
they helped change the local European economy into an international
trading system.
Mercantilism
European monarchs adopted a new economic policy, known as
mercantilism, aimed at strengthening their national economies.
According the mercantilism, a nation’s real wealth is measured in its gold and
silver treasure. To build its supply of gold and silver, a nation must export more
goods than it imports.
Overseas empires and colonies existed for the benefit of the parent nation.
Rulers needed to adopt policies to increase national wealth and government
revenues.
To achieve these goals, European governments
•
•
•
•
passed strict laws regulating trade with their colonies.
exploited natural resources, built roads, and backed new industries.
sold monopolies to large producers in certain areas.
imposed tariffs, or taxes on imported goods.
THIS WILL BE ONE OF THE KEYS TO THE
GROWTH OF ABSOLUTE MONARCHS
Mercantilism
• Country’s wealth is measured by how
much gold & silver it has
• A country must export more than it
imports
• THEREFORE…colonies exist for the
sole benefit of the mother country
Raw materials
Mother
country
colonies
Manufactured products
How Did Economic Changes
Affect Europeans?
The impact of economic change depended on a person’s social class.
• Merchants who invested in overseas ventures acquired wealth.
• Nobles, whose wealth was in land, were hurt by the price revolution.
• Hired workers in towns and cities faced poverty and discontent
when their wages did not keep up with inflation.
•
Peasants, the majority of Europeans, were not affected
until centuries later.
Within Europe’s growing cities, there were great differences
in wealth and power.
European exploration
resulted in a GLOBAL
exchange of people,
animals, food, plants,
technology and disease.
TEST – Age of Discovery
Chapters 15 & 16
• 40 multiple choice
– Regents Prep - 4e. Age of Exploration
• 10 matching (vocabulary)
• 2 short answers