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Transcript
Uthman (r)
Up to Abu Bakr’s Khilaafah
A.S. Hashim, MD
From Wikipedia.com
Sources of Reference
ibn Hisham,
Uthman bin Affan, the Third Khalifa of Islam by, Abdul Basit.
Hilya al-Awliya, Abu Nu’aym,
Uthman ibn Affan: The Man With Two Lights (Part Two)
The Murder of the Khalifa Uthman, M. Hinds,
The Arabs in History, Oxford University Press, 2002
Encyclopædia Britannica
The Early Islamic Conquests, Fred Donner, Princeton 1981
A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims
The Cambridge History of Islam, Bernard Lewis,
The Succession to Muhammad
Makers of Arab History By Philip Khuri Hitti.
In this Slide Show
Lineage
Uthman: nickname Dhul-Nurayn ‫ذو النورين‬
Conversion to Islam
Migration to Abyssinia
Life in Medina
Treaty of Hudaibiyah
After the Conquest of Mecca Uthman's family converts
Tabuk
Ghadeer Khum
Marriages
During the Last Days of the Prophet
Uthman ibn Affan: ‫عثمان بن عفان‬
Uthman ibn Affan ‫ عثمان بن عفان‬was:
One of the Sahaaba (companions of Prophet
Muhammad).
An early convert to Islam,
he played a major role in early Islamic history,
most notably as the third Khalifa of the Rashidoon
Empire,
Prophet's son-in-law and
the compilation of the Quran.
Lineage
Uthman was born in Ta’if, which is situated on a high elevation,
Presumably during the summer months,
since wealthy Meccans usually spent hot summer days in the cooler climate of
Ta’if.
Uthman was born into the wealthy Umayya clan (Benu Umayya) of the
Quraish tribe of Mecca,
He was seven years younger than Muhammad,
and 5 years younger than Abu Bakr,
but eight years older than Omar.
Uthman's father, Affan, died young while traveling abroad but left a large
inheritance to Uthman.
Uthman followed the same profession as his father, and his business
flourished, making him one of the wealthiest among the Quraish tribe.
Uthman’s mother, Arwa Bint Kuraiz ‫ أروى بنت كريز‬was the daughter of the aunt
of Prophet Muhammad
Lineage
Tribe
Benu Ummaya
Father
Affan
Uthman
Tribe
Abd Munaaf
Mother
Arwa bint Kuraiz
Uthman: nickname Dhul-Nurayn ‫ذو النورين‬
Later Uthman was nicknamed Dhul-Nurayn ‫ذو النورين‬
Dhul-Nurayn means: a Man with two lights,
because of his marriage with two of the Prophet
Muhammad's daughters.
1. Ruqayya Bint Muhammad, Who bore him a son,
Abdullah, but he died early,
2. When Ruqayya died, Uthman got married to her
sister, Umm Kulthoom Bint Muhammad, who bore
no children.
Uthman up to his Khilaafah
1. Lineage
2. Conversion to Islam
3. Migration to Abyssinia
4. Treaty of Hudaibiya
5. Tabuk
6. During Last Days of the Prophet
Description
Uthman was:
handsome,
generous,
and plain rather than luxurious.
Uthman was said to be charming.
Uthman was well known for his reported generosity.
During Muhammad's time, while in Medina, he financed the project
for the construction of the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi
and purchased the well Beer Rauma, which he dedicated to the
free use of all Muslims.
Uthman’s generosity continued after he became Khalifa.
Conversion to Islam
Uthman was an early convert to Islam and is said to have
spent a great amount of his wealth on charity.
On returning from a business trip to Syria in 611, the 33
yr old Uthman found out that Muhammad had declared
his mission.
Uthman, after a discussion with his friend Abu Bakr,
decided to convert to Islam,
and Abu Bakr took him to Muhammad to whom he
declared his faith.
It is claimed that Uthman was the fourth male to convert
to Islam, after Ali, Zaid and Abu Bakr had embraced
Islam.
‫‪Conversion to Islam‬‬
‫واّلل إنك‬
‫ولما عرض أبو بكر عليه اإلسالم قال له‪ :‬ويحك يا عثمان َ‬
‫لرجل حازم ما يخفى عليك الحق من الباطل‪ ،‬هذه األوثان التي يعبدها‬
‫قومك‪ ،‬أليست حجارة صماء ال تسمع‪ ،‬وال تبصر‪ ،‬وال تضر‪ ،‬وال تنفع؟‬
‫اّلل قد بعثه‬
‫واّلل إنها كذلك‪ ،‬قال أبو بكر‪ :‬هذا محمد بن عبد َ‬
‫فقال‪ :‬بلى‪َ ،‬‬
‫اّلل برسالته إلى جميع خلقه‪ ،‬فهل لك أن تأتيه وتسمع منه؟ فقال‪ :‬نعم‪.‬‬
‫َ‬
‫اّلل عليه وسلم ـ فقال‪( :‬يا عثمان‬
‫اّلل ـ صلى َ‬
‫مر رسول َ‬
‫وفي الحال َ‬
‫فواّلل‬
‫اّلل إليك وإلى جميع خلقه)‪ .‬قال ‪:‬‬
‫َ‬
‫اّلل إلى جنته فإني رسول َ‬
‫أجب َ‬
‫اّلل وحده‬
‫ما ملكت حين سمعت قوله أن أسلمت‪ ،‬وشهدت أن ال إله إال َ‬
‫ال شريك له‪ ،‬وأن محمدا ً عبده ورسوله‪،‬‬
Conversion to Islam
Uthman’s conversion to Islam enraged his clan, the Benu Umayya,
Benu Umayya, (a powerful, materialistic, and greedy), opposed
Muhammad's Message to their maximum.
Benu Umayya felt the Message of Islam was a great threat to them.
The only relatives of Uthman who supported his decision were
Saadi, Uthman’s maternal aunt,
and Umm Kulthoom, Uthman’s stepsister who had also converted to
Islam.
Because of his conversion to Islam, Uthman's wives deserted him,
and he subsequently divorced them.
Muhammad then asked Uthman to marry his daughter Ruqayya Bint
Muhammad.
Migration to Abyssinia
Uthman and his wife Ruqayya migrated to Abyssinia
(Ethiopia) in 614-615,
along with 11 men and 11 women,
all Muslims.
As Uthman already had some business contacts in
Abyssinia, he continued to practice his profession as a
trader.
He worked hard, and his business soon flourished.
After two years, the news had spread among the Muslims
in Abyssinia that the Quraish of Mecca had accepted
Islam,
and that convinced Uthman, Ruqayya, and some other Muslims to
return to Mecca.
Migration to Abyssinia, Continued
When they reached Mecca however, it transpired that the
news about the Quraish's acceptance of Islam was false.
Some of the Muslims who had come from Abyssinia returned to
Abyssinia, but Uthman and Ruqayya decided to stay.
A second group of more than 80 Muslims migrated to
Abyssinia shortly after.
They stayed for several years, returning when Khaybar was
conquered by Ali
In Mecca, Uthman had to start his business afresh,
but the contacts that he had already established in Abyssinia
worked in his favor,
and his business prospered once again.
Life in Medina: Badr
In 624, some Muslims from Medina departed to assist in
the capture of a Quraish caravan. This culminated in the
battle of Badr.
At this time, Uthman's wife Ruqayya suffered from
serious sickness.
Uthman stayed in Medina to look after the ailing
Ruqayya, and did not join those who left with
Muhammad.
Ruqayya died while the Battle of Badr was being fought,
and when the news of the victory of Badr reached Medina
Ruqayya was being buried.
Because of the battle Muhammad could not attend the
funeral of his daughter.
Life in Medina: Ohod
Uthman and most of the Sahaaba fled in the Battle of Ohod
which was fought in 625.
They returned back after Ali had repulsed the attacks on Muhammad
as stated in the Quran all those who fled were forgiven by God.
Following the Battle of Ohod
Al-Hasan, son of Ali, was born
and Uthman married Muhammad's second daughter, Umm Kulthoom Bint
Muhammad.
The next year, Uthman’s son, Abdullah ibn Uthman died.
Uthman did not participate in the Trench Encounter
Which was fought in 627,
Uthman was put in charge of a sector of Medina.
Disposal of the Slaves
After the Trench encounter a campaign was undertaken
against the Jews of Benu Quraidha,
and when the Jews were taken captive, the question of
the disposal of the slaves became a problem.
Uthman solved the issue by purchasing all the slaves,
and depositing their price in the Bayt al-mal (Treasury).
Any of these slaves who accepted Islam were set free by
Uthman in the name of Allah.
Slaves were granted equality, given shelter and food
under Islamic rule.
Treaty of Hudaibiyah
In March of 628 (6 Hijrah), Muhammad set out for Mecca to perform
the ritual pilgrimage of Haj.
The Quraish denied the Muslims entry into the city and posted
themselves outside Mecca,
determined to show resistance,
even though the Muslims had no intention or preparation for battle.
Muhammad camped outside Mecca, at Hudaibiya,
and sent Uthman as his envoy
to meet with the leaders of Quraish
and negotiate Muslim entry into the city.
The Quraish made Uthman stay longer in Mecca than he originally
planned and refused to inform the Muslims of his whereabouts.
At Hudaibiya
The treaty of Hudaibiya was such as to raise objections,
especially by Omar.
Omar objected over a clause of the treaty saying:
that any citizen from Mecca entering Medina is eligible to be
returned back to Mecca (if they want),
while any Muslim from Medina entering Mecca is not eligible to be
returned to the Muslims, even if Muhammad requested.
After the signing of the treaty, there was still lingering
disappointment among some Muslims because they did
not like the stipulations of the treaty.
Muhammad, binding onto the Islamic ethic (fulfill every
promise), ordered that Muslims do exactly as the treaty
says.
Omar and the Hudaibiya Treaty
Omar, and a few Muslims, objected strongly to the treaty, and even
went as far as regarding that Muhammad's decision was wrong.
Since in compliance to the treaty, Muslims were not to enter Mecca for
Omrah in that year
Therefore, many Muslims even objected when Muhammad repeated three
times to perform their Omrah rites in the location they were in.
But Muhammad kept emphasizing that Muslims had been victorious.
A while later, Omar became worried the Prophet was displeased with
him on account of his attitude.
Shortly after, revelations came out in support of the Prophet:
(Al-Fat’h, the victory: 48:1).
(Al-Fat’h, the victory: 48:18-19)
See next slide:
Al-Fat’h, the Victory:
Verily We have granted thee a manifest
Victory ….
Allah's Good Pleasure was on the
Believers when they swore Fealty to thee
under the Tree: He knew what was in
their hearts, and He sent down
Tranquility to them; and He rewarded
them with a speedy Victory;
And many gains will they acquire
(besides): and Allah is Exalted in Power,
Full of Wisdom.
48:1 and 48:18-19
‫ِإنَا فَت َ ْحنَا لَ َك فَتْ ًحا م ِبينًا‬
…..
‫ع ِن‬
َ ‫ي‬
َ ‫اّلل‬
ِ ‫لَقَ ْد َر‬
َ ‫ض‬
‫ين ِإ ْذ يبَا ِيعونَ َك‬
َ ِ‫ْالمؤْ ِمن‬
َ ‫ت ال‬
‫ش َج َر ِة فَعَ ِل َم َما ِفي‬
َ ‫ت َ ْح‬
َ‫س ِكينَة‬
َ ‫قلو ِب ِه ْم فَأ َ ْنزَ َل ال‬
‫علَ ْي ِه ْم َوأَثَابَه ْم فَتْ ًحا قَ ِريبًا‬
َ
ۗ ‫َو َمغَا ِن َم َك ِثي َرة ً يَأْخذونَ َها‬
ً ‫ع ِز‬
‫يزا َح ِكي ًما‬
َ ‫َو َك‬
َ ‫ان‬
َ ‫اّلل‬
22
Treaty of Hudaibiyah: Continued
When Uthman was delayed, the Muslims worried that Uthman might
have been killed by the people of Quraish.
On this occasion, Muhammad gathered his nearly 1,400 Muslims with
him to pledge to fight unto death
To avenge the death of Uthman if it so happens,
They all pledged by placing a hand on top of Muhammad's hand.
It is reported that Muhammad placed one of his hands on top of the
other and pledged on behalf of Uthman as well.
This pledge took place under a tree and was known as the Pledge of
the Tree
and was successful in demonstrating to the Quraish the
determination of the Muslims.
Quraish soon released Uthman and sent Suhail ibn Amr to negotiate
terms of treaty that later became known as the Treaty of Hudaibiya.
23
The Omrah, then Conquering Mecca
In 629, following Hudaibiya Uthman was at the Battle of Khaybar
and later that year, he followed Muhammad to perform Omrah in
Mecca.
While in Mecca Uthman visited his mother and found that his family
was not as hostile to Islam as they used to be.
In 630, the Quraish broke the treaty of Hudaibiya,
and because of that, the Muslims attacked and conquered Mecca.
General amnesty was granted to the people of the city, although an
exception was made in the case of half a dozen people.
Amongst those not granted amnesty was Abdullah, a foster brother of
Uthman. Later, following an appeal by Abdullah's mother to Uthman,
he was forgiven by Muhammad.
The Conquest of Mecca
Following the Conquest of Mecca Uthman's family converted to Islam
and Uthman rejoined his mother and siblings.
Two weeks later:
Uthman participated in the Battle of Hunain
which was followed by the Siege of Ta'if.
To Uthman:
the conquest of Mecca and Ta’if were of particular significance,
as he had considerable property in both cities,
and he could now profitably develop them.
He set up sub-offices for his businesses at both Mecca and Ta’if.
Uthman's wife, Umm Kulthoom Bint Muhammad, died soon after the
conquest of Mecca.
Tabuk
In 630 Muhammad decided to lead an expedition to Tabuk on the
Syrian border.
In order to finance the expedition Muhammad invited contributions
from his followers.
Uthman made the largest contribution:
1,000 Dinars in cash,
950 camels for transport,
and 50 horses for the cavalry, which Muhammad greatly
appreciated.
In 631, Uthman, along with other Muslims, went to Mecca to perform
Haj under Abu Bakr while Muhammad stayed in Medina.
A year later, in 632 Uthman was present in the Farewell Pilgrimage
under the leadership of Muhammad.
Ghadeer Khum
Following the Haj, the Prophet and multitude of others
were on their way home, including Abu Bakr and Omar.
Juhfa was an intersection between Mecca and Medina
Near Juhfa, at an oasis called Ghadeer Khum, the
Prophet delivered a speech
The Prophet stood on an elevation to be seen by the
massive crowd
He took Ali with him, raising up both his and Ali’s arms
He gave a long speech, the highlight was:
Ali is Appointed as the Wali (in charge of the Ummah)
after the Prophet
The Prophet’s Speech at Ghadeer Khum
‫ي مواله اللهم وال من وااله وعاد من عاده‬
ٌ ‫من كنت مواله فهذا عل‬
‫وانصر من نصره واخذل من خذله وأدر الحق معه حيثما دار‬
O' people, whosoever I am his leader, So is Ali to
be his leader
O' lord, uphold him who upholds Ali, And antagonize him
who antagonizes Ali, And support him who supports Ali,
And impede him who impedes Ali, And let the truth be with
Ali wherever he goes
After the Speech in Ghadeer Khum
Omar came forward congratulating Ali
saying:
‫من ومؤمنه‬
‫حت‬
َ ‫بخ‬
َ َ‫ أصب‬،‫لك يا علي‬
ٍّ ‫موالي ومولى ك ٍّل مؤ‬
َ
ٍّ ٍّ ‫خ‬
ٍّ ٍّ ‫ب‬
Congratulations, congratulations, O' Ali! You have
become my leader And the leader of every
believer, man or woman.
Abu Bakr did likewise
The multitude of others came to congratulate Ali
before heading home
Ghadeer Khum Nowadays
Marriages
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Throughout his life, Uthman married the following:
Umm Amr Bint Jundub ‫أم عمرو بنت جندب‬
Fatima Bint Al-Walid ‫فاطمة بنت الوليد‬
Ruqayya Bint Muhammad ‫رقية بنت محمد‬
Umm Kalthoom Bint Muhammad ‫أم كلثوم بنت محمد‬
Fakhita Bint Ghazwaan ‫فاختة بنت غزوان‬
Umm al-Baneen U'yainah Bint Husn ‫أم البنين بنت عيينة‬
‫بن حصن‬
Ramla Bint Shaiba ‫رملة بنت شيبة‬
Na’ila Bint al-Farafisa ‫نائلة بنت الفرافصة‬
During the Last Days of the Prophet
It was only not long afterwards that Prophet Muhammad
fell sick
While the Prophet asked Abu Bakr and Omar to be in
U'sama expedition
He did not ask Uthman to be in it
The Prophet’s sickness got worse, then he died In 632
Uthman, like other Muslims, was grief-stricken.
Uthman was not at Saqifa of Benu Sa‘ida
But he certainly knew of Abu Bakr becoming Khalifa, and of the
aftermath and its consequences.
Uthman was not at the Ridda wars.
Uthman: Hagia Sophia, Istanbul,
Uthman Appreciated for:
Good Demeanor
His closeness to Muhammad
Prowess at business
His generosity
Twice son-in-law of the Prophet
In Conclusion
Uthman, from birth up to the Khilaafah
Discussed in this slide show are:
Lineage
Conversion to Islam
Migration to Abyssinia
Life in Medina
Treaty of Hudaibiya
Tabuk
During the Last Days of the Prophet
Finally we quote the Quran:
By the Token of Time
Verily Man is in loss,
Except those who
believe and do good
works, and exhort one
another to Truth and
exhort one another to
patience.
ِ ‫ِب ْس ِم‬
‫الر ِح ِيم‬
َ ‫من‬
َ ‫هللا‬
ِ ‫الر ْح‬
‫ص ِر‬
ْ َ‫َو ْالع‬
‫ان لَ ِفي خ ْس ٍّر‬
َ ‫س‬
َ ‫ِإ َن اِالن‬
‫ع ِملوا‬
َ ‫ِإال الَ ِذ‬
َ ‫ين آ َمنوا َو‬
‫ق‬
ِ ‫صا ِل َحا‬
َ ‫ال‬
َ ‫ت َوت َ َوا‬
ِ ٍّ ‫ص ْوا ِب ْال َح‬
‫صب ِْر‬
َ ‫ص ْوا ِبال‬
َ ‫َوت َ َوا‬
THANK YOU
Be in God’s Care
Dr. A.S. Hashim