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Study Guide, Unit 4
You will need an 882 E Scantron.
Questions 1-33 are all histology pictures with multiple choice questions printed on the PowerPoint slides. The
slides will be projected on the screen in the front of the room, and the slides will change every 30 seconds and
continue back to the beginning in a continuous loop. Questions 34-100 are multiple choice on 24 stations
around the room, including models, and cats. Extra credit is just 5 additional structures on models.
CATS
Respiratory system on cat:
– Diaphragm
– Lungs
– Trachea
– Larynx
– Bronchus
GI system on cat:
• Parotid gland
• Lingual frenulum
• Esophagus
• Liver
• gall bladder
• Spleen
• Stomach (with rugae inside)
• Pancreas
• greater omentum
• Mesentery
• Duodenum
• Jejunum
• Ileum
• Large Intestine (colon)
Renal system in cat:
– Kidney
– Ureter
– Urinary bladder
Reproductive system on male cat:
• Reproductive system on male cat:
– Scrotum (has fur)
• Testes
Reproductive system on female cat:
• Ovary
• Uterine horn
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Study Guide, Unit 4
MODELS
Upper Respiratory models:
Know the below structures on each of the above models
External nares
Lingual frenulum (can only see on the first three models above)
Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx
Esophagus
Uvula
Epiglottis (“leaf-like” flap, function is to cover the glottis)
Glottis (this is a hole; “Name this opening”)
Uvula
Thyroid gland
Palatine tonsil (tonsils are members of the immune system)
Pharyngeal tonsil
Know these structures
Frontal sinus
Sphenoid sinus
Middle nasal conchae
Inferior nasal conchae
Trachea model:
Know the below structures
on this model
Hyoid bone
Trachealis muscle
Arytenoid cartilage
Cricoid cartilage
Thyroid cartilage
Epiglottis
Thyroid gland
Parathyroid glands (pink
dots)
Know these on the skin model (no photo yet)
Epidermis (stratified squamous ET)
Dermis (dense irregular CT)
Hypodermis (adipose)
Know the below structures on this
model
Villus
Lacteal
Intestinal crypt
Mucosa with simple columnar epithelium
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Study Guide, Unit 4
Lung Model
Know the below structures on these models
Hyoid bone
Thyroid cartilage
Thyroid gland
Trachea
Lung
Pulmonary artery (blue) and vein (red)
Bronchi: primary, secondary, tertiary
Diaphragm
Glands and Tonsil Models
Know these structures
Submandibular gland
Sublingual gland
Parotid gland
Palatine tonsil
Pharyngeal tonsil
Stomach model:
Know the below structures on this model
Fundus region
Cardiac region
Pylorus region
Greater curvature
Lesser curvature
Pyloric sphincter
Plicae circularis
Rugae (macroscopic folds that allow for expansion)
The stomach produces mucous, enzymes, hormones, and HCl (acid)
Pancreas/Spleen Models:
Know the below structures on these
models
Kidney
Gall bladder
Pancreas
Spleen (function is to remove
foreign antigens and aging RBC’s)
Duodenum
Plicae circularis
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Study Guide, Unit 4
GI models:
Know the below structures on the above
model
Stomach (know the structures and regions)
Pancreas
Spleen
Pyloric sphincter
Circular folds (plicae circularis; these are
macroscopic folds in the mucosa)
Ascending colon
Transverse colon
Descending colon
Tenia coli
Jejunum (middle part of small intestine)
Ileum
Cecum
Ileocecal valve
Appendix
Rectum
NOTE: Plicae circularis, microvilli, and villi all
increase the surface area of the small intestinal
lining
Intestine Models
Know these structures on
these models
Greater omentum
Jejunum
Ascending colon
descending colon
transverse colon
Tenia coli
Sigmoid colon
Mesentery
Cecum
Appendix
Common bile duct
Duodenum
Pancreas
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Study Guide, Unit 4
Liver models:
Know the below structures on the above models
Gall bladder
Cystic duct
Common bile duct
Falciform ligament
Know the below structures on this model
Liver lobule
Central vein
Sinusoids
Kupffer cells
Hepatic triad
Bile duct
Hepatic artery
Hepatic portal venule (brings venous blood
to the liver for cleansing)
Endocrine Gland Baby:
Baby Model
Thyroid gland (secretes thyroid hormone and calcitonin)
Pituitary gland (secretes FSH, etc. The neurohypophysis
stores and releases hormones produced in the hypothalamus)
Thymus gland (site of maturation of white blood cells)
Dry Lab Endocrine Questions
Function of endocrine system is to maintain homeostasis
Parathyroid gland (secretes parathyroid hormone)
Adrenal gland (secretes cortisol, epinephrine, aldosterone)
Ovary (also an endocrine gland; secretes estrogen)
Pancreas (secretes insulin; lack= diabetes mellitus)
Testes (secretes testosterone)
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Study Guide, Unit 4
Renal area of Man:
Know the below structures on this model
Spleen
Kidney
Adrenal gland
Renal artery
Ureter
Urinary bladder
Kidney Model:
Know the below structures on this model
Kidney
Ureter
Urinary bladder
Urethra
Prostate gland
Adrenal gland (secretes cortisol, aldosterone, epinephrine,
sex hormones for opposite sex)
Nephron Model:
Know the below structures on this model
Vasa recta
Peritubular capillaries
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Study Guide, Unit 4
Renal model of kidney:
Know the below structures on these
models
REGIONS:
Cortex
Medulla
Renal pelvis.
STRUCTURES:
Pyramids
Major calyx
Minor calyx
Hilus
Ureter
VESSELS:
Renal artery
Segmental artery
Interlobar arteries
Arcuate arteries
Interlobular arteries.
Nephron models:
Know the below structures on this model
Glomerulus
Proximal convoluted tubule
Descending loop of the nephron
Thick segment
Thin segment
Ascending loop of the nephron
Thick segment
Thin segment
Distal convoluted tubule
Collecting tubule (where the urine is most similar to
the urine in the bladder)
Vasa recta
Study Tip:
To get oriented, always start at the glomerulus and run your finger
down the proximal convoluted tubule. When it loops back up and
thickens, you are now at the distal convoluted tubule.
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Study Guide, Unit 4
Renal model glomerulus:
Know the below structures on this model
Afferent arteriole
Efferent arteriole
Glomerular capsule (Bowman’s capsule)
The glomerular space is where the urine is most
dissimilar to the urine in the bladder
Reproductive system on male model:
Know the below structures on these models
STRUCTURES:
Scrotum
Testes
Epididymis
Spermatic cord
Ductus (vas) deferens
Penis
Prostatic urethra
Seminal vesicle (function is to enhance sperm motility)
Prostate gland (function is to enhance sperm motility)
Bulbourethral gland (function is to lubricate
urethra for sperm and neutralize pH)
REGIONS OF PENIS
Root
Body
Glans
STRUCTURES OF PENIS:
Corpus cavernosum
Corpus spongiosum
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Study Guide, Unit 4
Ovulation Model
Know the below structures on the above model
Primary follicle (FSH causes these to develop into
secondary follicles)
Secondary follicle (secretes estrogen)
Graafian follicle (secretes estrogen; LH causes antrum
to burst at ovulation)
Corpus albicans
Corpus luteum (secretes progesterone)
Ovum
Reproductive system on female model:
Know these structures on
these models
STRUCTURES:
Uterus
Cervix
Vagina
Clitoris
Labia majora
Labia minora
Ovary (is also an endocrine gland)
Ovarian ligament
Round ligament
Uterine tube (fallopian tube)
Urethra
Labia majora
Labia minora
REGIONS OF UTERINE
(FALLOPIAN) TUBE:
Infundibulum
Ampulla
Isthmus
REGIONS OF UTERUS:
Fundus
Cervix
LAYERS OF THE UTERUS:
Myometrium
Endometrium
Epimetrium
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Study Guide, Unit 4
Slides
NOTE: Tissue is the name for a group of cells with similar appearance and common function.
Epithelium:
Simple squamous (found in the glomerulus of kidney)
Stratified squamous (function is protection from abrasion)
Simple columnar
Simple cuboidal (found in kidney tubules)
Stratified cuboidal (found in sweat glands)
Pseudostratified columnar (found in the trachea)
Transitional (found in the bladder of the urinary system, allows for stretching)
Connective Tissue Proper
Areolar (aka loose)
Dense regular (found in tendons and ligaments, collagen fibers are its primary component)
Dense irregular (found in dermis of skin)
Reticular (found in lymph nodes, supports immune cells in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen)
Adipose
Special Connective Tissue
Cartilage (all cartilage is avascular) Types:
Hyaline (most common cartilage; found in articular cartilage)
Elastic (found in ears)
Fibrocartilage (found in vertebral discs; this type of cartilage is the most resistant to physical stresses like compression)
Bone
Compact bone
Cancellous (spongy) bone
Muscle; skeletal, cardiac, smooth
Blood; neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil
OTHER HISTOLOGY TO KNOW
Artery, vein, arteriole, venuole, capillary
Nervous tissue (found in the spinal cord)
Eye: retina, choroid coat, sclera
Lung; (functional unit is the alveolus); identify the alveolus
Salivary gland
Tongue: taste bud
Small intestine; villus, intestinal crypts
Liver: (functional unit is the lobule); identify the central vein
Pancreas: acini (also known as acinar cells), islets (secrete insulin; this hormone is absent of ineffective
in diabetes mellitus)
Spleen: red pulp, white pulp (function is to remove foreign antigens and aging RBCs)
Thyroid gland: secretes thyroid hormone and calcitonin
Kidney: (functional unit of the kidney is the nephron) Identify the glomerulus; kidney tubules
Ovary; follicle, oocyte, coronata radiata, antrum
Testis; seminiferous tubules
10