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Transcript
Chapter 7
The Skeletal System:The Axial Skeleton
• Axial Skeleton
– 80 bones
– skull and face, hyoid,
vertebrae, ribs, sternum,
ear ossicles
• Appendicular Skeleton
– 126 bones
– upper & lower limbs and
pelvic & pectoral girdles
Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS
7-1
Types of Bones
• 5 basic types of bones:
1. Long - greater length than
width
2. Short - same length and
width
3. Flat
4. Irregular - variable
5. Sesamoid - covered in
tendons or ligaments (patella)
• Sutural bones - in joint
between skull bones
Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS
7-2
Bone Surface Markings
• Surface features-- rough area, groove, openings, process
• Specific functions
– passageway for blood vessels and nerves
– joint formation
– muscle attachment & contraction / vary with physical stress
Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS
7-3
Process
• Projections or outgrowths that help form
joints or serve as attachment points for
connective tissue.
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7-4
Cranial Bones
Sphenoid (1) base & sides of cranium, parts of orbits
• Ethmoid (1) – walls of nasal cavities,
floor of cranium, orbits
• Occipital (1) – back & base of cranium
The Ethmoid Bone
Floor of Cranium
The Sphenoid Bone
Facial Bones – 14 bones
Maxilla (2) – upper jaw,
roof of mouth;
(“keystone”)
Nasal (2) – bridge of
nose
Zygomatic (2) – cheek
bones, walls of orbits
Lacrimal (2) – medial
walls of orbits
Special Features of Facial Bones
Mandible - mandibular condyle –articulation
point w/temporal bone
coranoid process – provides
attachment for
chewing muscles
Vertebral Column
• Backbone or spine built of
26 vertebrae
• Five vertebral regions
– cervical vertebrae (7) in
the neck (C1-C7)
– thoracic vertebrae ( 12 ) in
the thorax (T1-T12)
– lumbar vertebrae ( 5 ) in the
low back region (L1-L5)
– sacrum (5 fused as adult)
– coccyx (4 fused as adult)
Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS
7-13
spinal cord
(posterior)
ganglion
nerve
vertebra
meninges
(protective
coverings)
(anterior)
gray matter
central canal
white matter
Fig. 35.8, p. 593
Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS
7-14
Intervertebral Discs
• Between adjacent vertebrae absorbs vertical shock
• Permit various movements of the vertebral column
• Fibrocartilagenous ring with a pulpy center
Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS
7-15
Sacrum
• Union of 5 vertebrae (S1 - S5) by age 30
• Forms the posterior border of the pelvis
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7-16
Coccyx
• Union of 4 vertebrae (Co1 - Co4) by age 30
• Forms the “tail bone”
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7-17
Thorax
– Bony cage flattened
from front to back
– Sternum (breastbone)
– Ribs
• 1-7 are true ribs
(vertebrosternal)
• 8-10 are false ribs
(vertebrochondral)
• 11-12 are floating
Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS
– Costal cartilages
7-18
Sternum – Consist of 3 Bones
• Manubrium
– 1st & 2nd ribs
– clavicular notch
– suprasternal
notch
• Body
– costal cartilages
of 2-10 ribs
• Xiphoid process
– ossifies by 40
– CPR position
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7-19
Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS
8-20
Upper Extremity
• Each upper limb = 30 bones
– humerus within the arm
– ulna & radius within the forearm
– carpal bones within the wrist
– metacarpal bones within the
palm
– phalanges in the fingers
• Joints
– shoulder (glenohumeral), elbow,
wrist, metacarpophalangeal,
interphalangeal
Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS
8-21
Carpal / Metacarpals and Phalanges
• Metacarpals
– 5 total per hand / #1 proximal to
thumb
• Phalanges
– 14 total per hand / each is called
phalanx
– proximal, middle and distal
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8-22
Pelvic Girdle and Hip Bones
COXAL
• Pelvic girdle = two hipbones united at pubic symphysis
– articulate posteriorly with sacrum at sacroiliac joints
• Each hip bone (coxal bone) formed by fusion of ilium,
pubis, and ischium / fuse after birth at acetabulum
• Bony pelvis = 2 hip bones, sacrum and coccyx
Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS
8-23
Illium /Ischium /Pubis
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8-24
Male and Female Pelvis
• Male pelvis
– pubic arch is less than
90 degrees
• Female pelvis
– pubic arch is greater
than 90 degrees
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8-25
Lower Extremity
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8-26
Femur and Patella
Head
Neck
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8-27
Tibia and Fibula
• Tibia
– medial & larger bone of leg
– weight-bearing bone
– proximally articulates with the
femur & fibula and patella
– forms medial malleolus at ankle
• Fibula
–
–
–
–
not part of knee joint
muscle attachment only
forms lateral malleolus at ankle
Proximately ONLY articulates
with tibia
– Distally articulates with tibia and
talus
Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS
8-28
Tarsus / Foot
• Proximal region of foot (contains 7 tarsal bones)
• Talus = ankle bone (articulates with Tibia & Fibula)
• Calcaneus - heel bone
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8-29
Metatarsus and Phalanges
• Metatarsus
– midregion of the foot
• 5 metatarsals per foot / # 1 is
most medial
• Phalanges
Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS
– similar in number and
arrangement to the hand
– proximal / medial / distal
8-30
Joints
• Three criteria used to classify joints:
• Structurally
– The presence or absence of space between the
articulating bones (synovial cavity)
– The type of connective tissue that bind the bones
together.
• Anatomical characteristics
• Functionally
Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS
7-31
Structural Joints
• Fibrous joints – no synovial cavity and the
bones are held together by dense irregular
connective tissue that is rich in collagen
fibers (between bones of skull)
• Cartilaginous joints – no synovial cavity
and bones are held together by cartilage.
(hip joint)
• Synovial Joints – synovial cavity and
bones are united by the dense irregular
connective tissue of an articular capsule
and often by ligaments (knee)
7-32
Ligaments
• Join bone to bone
• Assist in Stabilization of Joint
• Restrict Movement
• Prevent Excessive Motion
Tendons
• Attach muscle to bone
• Transmit tensile loads
• Position of muscle relative to joint
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7-35