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Transcript
Words to Know
government - a political system for exercising
authority.
aristocracy – a government in which power is in the
hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility.
citizen – a native of a state or nation with certain
rights and privileges.
direct democracy – a government controlled by its
citizens either directly or through representatives.
monarchy – a government in which power is in the
hands of a single person.
Words to Know
continued
natural law – patterns and explanations of the world
discovered through reason and intelligence; used
by the Greeks in place of superstition & traditional
explanations of the world.
republic – a form of government in which power is in
the hands of representatives & leaders elected by
the people.
senate – in ancient Rome, the supreme governing
body, originally made up only of aristocrats.
Objectives
1. To identify the different political systems that
developed in ancient Greece.
2. To trace changes in the Greek democracy and the
flowering of Greek philosophy during the fifth
century B.C.
3. To compare and contrast democracy in Athens
with that under the Roman republic.
4. To describe the influence of Roman law on
government.
The World
Arctic
Ocean
Arctic
Ocean
Pacific
Ocean
SOUTH
POLE
Atlantic
Ocean
Arctic
Ocean
Indian
Ocean
SOUTH
POLE
Pacific
Ocean
Question:
How does the past influence the present?
Democracy is from the Greek words “demos”
meaning people and “kratos” meaning rule or
authority
Government - a political system for exercising
authority.
Democracy - a government BY the people.
Rise of Democratic Ideas
In Greece and Rome
Mediterranean Sea
Atlantic
Ocean
Pacific
Ocean
Pacific
Ocean
Indian
Ocean
Romans
509 B.C.
Greeks
594 B.C.
Direct Democracy - government in
which citizens rule directly voting
on laws, & other matters affecting
the city-state.
(Like a town meeting today with
the people’s representatives
hearing what the people want to
say.)
Executive Branch
President
White House
Legislative Branch
Senators &
Representatives
Capital Building
Judicial Branch
Justices
Supreme Court
Separation of Powers –the assignment of executive,
legislative, & judicial powers to different groups of officials in
a government.
(Like the U.S. Government, today)
Athenian Rulers and their Reforms
Solon
(630 – 560 B.C.) increased citizens’ participation in
government but it was still a limited democracy.
594 B.C., outlawed slavery based on debt and cancelled
farmers’ debts, averting a revolution
established four classes of citizenship based on wealth
instead of heredity.
also created a new Council of Four Hundred to prepare
business for the already existing Council
a fairer code of laws
the right of citizens to bring charges against wrongdoers.
508 B.C. Cleisthenes' reforms
was felt immediately,
revolutionizing all aspects of
Athenian life.
Everyone was really happy !
He wanted to break up the power of the nobles.
His laws allowed all citizens to submit laws for debate and
passage.
He also created the Council of Five Hundred which
counseled the assembly.
Democracy released unheard of potentials in its citizens
and ushered in an age of achievement and prosperity.
Athens, Greece – The Parthenon
Atop the Acropolis
Aristotle
Plato
Socrates
Greek Philosophers (Thinkers)
They did not rely on superstition or tradition
but used reason and intelligence (logic) to
discover predictable patterns they called
natural laws.
NATURAL LAWS
Greek Philosophers based their
philosophy on these natural laws:
1. The universe (land, sky, sea) is put
together in an orderly way and is
subject to absolute & unchanging laws.
2. People can understand these laws
through logic and reason .
338 B.C.
The end of Democracy
in Greece and…..……
The beginning of a
foreign Monarchy.
*Direct democracy
*Paying jurors so more people can
participate
in
government
Greeks
*3 branches of government
*Written Legal Code
*Natural law
The lands of the Roman
Empire, who allowed conquered
people the right of equal
treatment under the law.
Invading Roman Army
Romans, welcoming their emperor.
•All citizens had the right to equal treatment
under the law.
•A person was considered innocent until proven
guilty.
•The burden of proof rested with the accuser
rather than the accused person.
•Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly
unfair could be set aside.
The
Roman
Republic
Roman aristocrats
overthrew the harsh
king & set up the new
government:
the Republic
The Romans were the
first to give us
Representative
Democracy with their
senators.
Roman Senate
Roman Forum
Justinian’s Code
even kings were subject to the law.
451 B.C. The Twelve Tablets (the early code):
officials collected all Roman laws
A.D. 528 Justinian (the new code):
all Roman laws since 451 B.C. be collected
when completed, consisted of four works
1. The Code which contained all the laws
2. The Digest which is a summary of legal opinions
3. The Novellae, laws passed after 534
These established “a government of law, not of men”
*Representative democracy
Romans *the Individual is a citizen of the State not
just a subject to a ruler.
*Written Legal Code
*3 branches of government
*All citizens had the right to :
equal treatment under the law
considered innocent until proven guilty
burden of proof rested with the accuser
*Any law that seemed unreasonable or
grossly unfair could be set aside.
Rise of Democratic Ideas in Greece and Rome
*594 B.C. – In Greece, adult males may attend & present
laws for debate in the assembly.
*509 B.C. – Romans establish a Republic (representative
Government).
*508 B.C. – In Greece, the assembly reorganized to limit
power of the nobles.
*461 B.C. – In Greece, direct democracy introduced to
Athens.
*A.D. 528 – In Rome, EMPEROR JUSTINIAN authorized a
panel to compile a written legal code for all
Roman citizens including rulers.
*A.D. 533 – Justinian’s Code of Laws (written legal code)
completed.
Summary: Rise of Democratic Ideas
• Greece/Rome:
• democracy (direct & representative)
• natural laws of the universe (logic, reason,
intelligence)
• limit power of nobles
• written code of laws
• separation of power (3 branches of government)