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Greek Civilization
1. Greek civilization
began as separate citystates, each of which
had its own system of
2. At first Athens was
governed by Aristocracy
made up of three nobles
selected by citizens
Athenian Democracy
1. Gradual evolution from
tyrants to democracy
2. 600 B.C. Solon initiated
political reform policies.
3. Cleistenes ( 508 B.C.)
Founder of Athenian
Age of Pericles( ruled, 461 B.C.
to 429 B.C.)-“Golden Age of
a. Increase number of paid
officials and paid Jurors
b. Poorer citizens can now
participate through Direct
Democracy -system of direct
citizen rule-no reps
The Greek Philosophers
1. Basic assumptions
a. Universe is orderly
and based on
unchanging laws
b. People can understand
these laws through
logic and reason
School of Athens
2. Socrates “The unexamined
life is not worth living”. Use
the Socratic method of
3. Plato wrote The Republic and
believed in government by
the wisest
1. Examined nature of world
and human belief,
thought, and knowledge
2. From Politics-” Man is by
nature a political
animal: it is in his nature to
live in a state”
Alexander and Aristotle
The Legacy of Greece
1. Belief in Reason
and Logic
2. Natural Law
3. Direct Democracy
4. Three Branches of
Romans learned about Greek
democracy when they
defeated the Greeks in a war
for control of the Italian
1. Republic-a form of
government in which power
rests with citizens who have
the right to elect
government leaders
2. The Senate was
controlled by aristocracy
and handled finance and
foreign affairs
Roman Law
1. Based on reason and
justice to protect citizens and
2. Burden of proof on accuser
3. Innocent until proven
4. Laws amendable
The Laws of the Twelve Tables
1. 455 B.C. : Earliest Roman
Written Law
2. Binding on both patrician
and plebeian
Principles of Roman Law
1. Unity and stability
2. Civil law- for Roman
3. Law of Nations –all peoplebased on nature
4. Rights of the Accused
5. Use of Evidence
6. Judicial Interpretation
From Republic to Empire
1. Punic Wars between 246
B.C. and 146 B.C.
2. Rome destroyed Carthage
and gained control of its
lands and peoples.
• In the eastern
Mediterranean, Rome
gained lands conquered
by Alexander the Great.
Julius Caesar
became dictator
1. Killed in 44 B.C.
2. Nephew Octavian
becomes first
Roman emperor
3. Augustus Caesar
The Justinian Code -528 A.D.
1. Expansion of Roman Law
2. Codification- System of
3. Profound impact on the
Justinian’s code of laws served to
transmit Roman law. His wife,
Theodora, was a tough politician
and co-ruler of the Byzantine
empire with Justinian.
The Legacy of Rome- The idea
of a republic
1. Representative
2. Preserved Greek concept
that individual is a
citizen of a state, rather
than subject of ruler
3. A written legal code