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Transcript
Enzymes
Explain how enzymes function as
catalysts.
A catalyst lowers activation energy.
• Activation energy for a chemical reaction is the
amount of energy needed to get a reaction started.
Once the reaction starts, it can continue by itself,
and it will go at a certain rate.
• A catalyst is a substance that decreases activation
energy needed to start a chemical reaction, and as a
result, also increases the rate of the chemical
reaction.
Enzymes allow chemical reactions to
occur under tightly controlled
conditions.
• Chemical reactions in organisms have to take place
at an organism’s body temperature.
• Enzymes are catalysts for chemical reactions in
living things.
– Enzymes lower activation energy and increase the rate
of chemical reactions.
– Enzymes are involved in almost every process in
organisms.
• Breaking down food
• Building proteins
Enzymes allow chemical reactions to
occur under tightly controlled
conditions.
• Almost all enzymes are proteins.
– Made of long chains of amino acids
– Depends on its structure to function properly
– Conditions such as temperature and pH can affect the
shape and function, or activity, of an enzyme.
Enzymes allow chemical reactions to
occur under tightly controlled
conditions.
• Enzyme structure is important because each
enzyme’s shape allows only certain reactants to
bind to the enzyme.
– Specific reactants that an enzyme acts on are called
substrates.
• Substrates temporarily bind to enzymes at specific
places called active sites.
• Substrates fit the exact active sites of enzymes like a
lock and key. (Lock and Key Model)
Substrates bind to
an enzyme at
certain places
called active sites.
The enzyme brings
substrates
together and
weakens their
bonds.
The catalyzed
reaction forms
a product that is
released
from the enzyme.