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Transcript
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
1. Identify characteristics of mental health
Define the following term:
mental health
a general term that refers to the normal functioning of
emotional and intellectual abilities.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
1. Identify characteristics of mental health
Understand these characteristics of a person who is mentally
healthy:
• Gets along with others
• Adapts to change
• Cares for self and others
• Gives and accepts love
• Deals with situations that cause anxiety, disappointment, and
frustration
• Takes responsibility for decisions, feelings, and actions
• Controls and fulfills desires and impulses appropriately
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
2. Identify four causes of mental illness
Define the following terms:
mental illness
a disease that affects a person’s ability to function at a
normal level in the family, home, or community.
situation response
a temporary condition that has symptoms like those of
mental illness; possible causes include a personal crisis,
temporary physical changes in the brain, side effects from
medications, interactions among medications, and severe
change in the environment.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
2. Identify four causes of mental illness
Know these situations of chronic stress which may cause or
worsen mental illness:
• Physical factors such as illness, disability, aging, substance
abuse, or chemical imbalance
• Environmental factors such as weak family relationships or
traumatic childhood experiences
• Heredity or family influence
• Stress, including coping abilities
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
3. Distinguish between fact and fallacy concerning mental illness
Define the following term:
fallacy
a false belief.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
3. Distinguish between fact and fallacy concerning mental illness
REMEMBER:
Understand that it is a false belief that people who are mentally
ill can control their illness and choose to be well.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
3. Distinguish between fact and fallacy concerning mental illness
REMEMBER:
Sometimes people confuse the meaning of terms “intellectual
disability” and “mental illness.” They are not the same.
Intellectual disability (formerly called mental retardation) is a
developmental disability that causes below-average mental
functioning.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
3. Distinguish between fact and fallacy concerning mental illness
Know these differences between intellectual disability and mental
illness:
• Intellectual disability is a permanent condition; mental illness
can be temporary.
• Intellectual disability is present at birth or emerges in
childhood. Mental illness may occur any time during a
person’s life.
• Intellectual disability affects mental ability. Mental illness may
or may not affect mental ability.
• There is no cure for an intellectual disability, although persons
who are intellectually disabled can be helped. Many mental
illnesses can be cured with treatment, such as medications
and therapy.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
3. Distinguish between fact and fallacy concerning mental illness
REMEMBER
Mental illness is a disease like any other physical illness.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
4. Explain the connection between mental and physical wellness
REMEMBER:
Mental health is important to physical health. Mental health can
reduce stress and prevent some physical diseases.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
4. Explain the connection between mental and physical wellness
Think about this question:
How can physical illness or disability cause or worsen mental
illness?
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
4. Explain the connection between mental and physical wellness
Think about this question:
Are there any stress-reducing techniques you use in your own
life? How about exercise, massage, deep breathing exercises,
meditation, reading, or just talking with friends about conflicts
and problems?
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
5. List guidelines for communicating with mentally ill clients
Know these guidelines for communicating with clients who are
mentally ill:
• Do not talk to adults as if they were children.
• Use simple, clear statements and a normal tone of voice.
• Show respect and concern.
• Sit or stand at a normal distance. Be aware of body language.
• Be honest and direct.
• Avoid arguments.
• Listen carefully.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
6. Identify and define common defense mechanisms
Define the following term:
defense mechanisms
unconscious behaviors used to release tension or cope with
stress.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
6. Identify and define common defense mechanisms
Understand these types of defense mechanisms:
• Denial
• Projection
• Displacement
• Rationalization
• Repression
• Regression
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
7. Describe the symptoms of anxiety, depression, and
schizophrenia
Define the following terms:
anxiety
uneasiness or fear, often about a situation or condition.
phobia
an intense form of anxiety or fear.
claustrophobia
fear of being in a confined space.
panic disorder
a disorder in which a person has repeated episodes of intense
fear that something bad will occur.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
7. Describe the symptoms of anxiety, depression, and
schizophrenia
Define the following terms:
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by obsessive behavior or
thoughts.
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
an anxiety disorder caused by a traumatic experience.
apathy
lack of interest in activities.
major depressive disorder
a type of depression that causes withdrawal, lack of energy,
and loss of interest in activities, as well as other symptoms;
also called major depression.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
7. Describe the symptoms of anxiety, depression, and
schizophrenia
Define the following terms:
bipolar disorder
a type of depression that causes a person to swing from
periods of deep depression to periods of extreme activity; also
called manic-depressive illness.
schizophrenia
a form of mental illness that affects a person’s ability to think,
communicate, make decisions, and understand reality.
hallucinations
seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, or feeling things that are
not there.
delusions
believing things that are not true.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
7. Describe the symptoms of anxiety, depression, and
schizophrenia
Define the following terms:
paranoid schizophrenia
a form of mental illness characterized by hallucinations and
delusions.
18 Mental Health and Mental Illness
Transparency 18-1: Mental Diagnosis 1
18 Mental Health and Mental Illness
Transparency 18-2: Mental Diagnosis 2
18 Mental Health and Mental Illness
Transparency 18-3: Mental Diagnosis 3
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
8. Explain common treatments for mental illness
Define the following term:
psychotherapy
a method of treating mental illness that involves talking about
one’s problems with a mental health professional.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
8. Explain common treatments for mental illness
REMEMBER:
Mental illness can be treated. Medication and psychotherapy are
common treatment methods.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
9. Explain your role in caring for clients who are mentally ill
REMEMBER:
Personal care of clients who are mentally ill is similar to care for
any client. The care plan will tell you what care to perform. You
will also have some special responsibilities.
18 Mental Health and Mental Illness
Transparency 18-4: HHA’s Role in Caring for the Mentally Ill
• Observe clients for changes. Document and report.
• Support the client and family.
• Encourage clients to do as much for themselves as possible.
• Help preserve the client’s role and authority in the family.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
9. Explain your role in caring for clients who are mentally ill
HHAs may do these home management tasks for clients who are
mentally ill:
• Food shopping, meal planning and preparation
• Housekeeping and laundry
• ADLs and personal care
• Child and family care
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
10. Identify important observations that should be made and
reported
Know these observations to observe and report, and why it is
important to do so:
• Changes in ability
• Positive or negative mood changes (withdrawal)
• Behavior changes
• Comments about hurting self or others
• Medication errors
• Real or imagined physical symptoms
• Events, situations, or people that provoke certain reactions
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
11. List the signs of substance abuse
Define the following term:
substance abuse
the use of legal or illegal drugs, cigarettes, or alcohol in a way
that is harmful to oneself or others.
18 Mental Health and Mental Illness
Transparency 18-5: Signs of Substance Abuse
• Changes in physical appearance (red eyes, dilated pupils,
weight loss)
• Changes in personality (moodiness, strange behavior,
disruption of routines, lying)
• Irritability
• Odor of cigarettes, liquor, or other substances
• Diminished sense of smell
• Changes in vital signs
• Loss of appetite
• Inability to function normally
• Need for money or missing money
• Confusion/forgetfulness
• Blackouts or memory loss
• Alcohol or cigarettes missing from home
• New friends, strange phone calls
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
11. List the signs of substance abuse
REMEMBER:
Illegal drugs are not the only substances that are abused. Even
over-the-counter meds can be abused if too many are taken.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
11. List the signs of substance abuse
Think about this question:
Can you think of substances commonly found in the home that
could be abused?
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
Exam
Multiple Choice. Choose the correct answer.
1. A person who is mentally healthy
(A) Can control and fulfill impulses appropriately
(B) Is unlikely to have relationships with others
(C) Cannot deal with stress well
(D) Does not take responsibility for decisions
2.
Which of the following is a sign or symptom of mental illness?
(A) Adapting to change
(B) Getting along with others
(C) Controlling impulses
(D) Being agitated
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
Exam (cont’d)
3.
Mental illness can be made worse by
(A) Eating a diet heavy in red meat and other animal-based proteins
(B) A strong sense of self-respect
(C) Taking prescribed medications
(D) Substance abuse
4.
Which of the following statements is true about mental illness?
(A) People with mental illness can control their symptoms.
(B) Mental illness is a disease like any physical illness.
(C) Mentally healthy persons are unable to control their emotions.
(D) Mental illness rarely disrupts a person’s ability to function.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
Exam (cont’d)
5.
One guideline for communicating with mentally ill clients is to
(A) Talk to adults like they are children if they do not understand what is
being said
(B) Maintain eye contact and listen closely
(C) Stand really close to clients
(D) Argue with clients if what they are saying is not true
6.
Which of the following is true of defense mechanisms?
(A) They are a type of mental illness.
(B) Anyone who uses them is likely to become mentally ill at some point.
(C) People who are mentally ill do not use them.
(D) They help a person cope with stress.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
Exam (cont’d)
7.
Telling a co-worker, “Let’s throw spitballs at our boss,” is an example of
which kind of defense mechanism?
(A) Displacement
(B) Regression
(C) Rationalization
(D) Projection
8.
A co-worker gets the promotion that an HHA has wanted for a long time.
When a friend asks if the HHA is upset, she says, “No, not at all.” This is an
example of
(A) Projection
(B) Displacement
(C) Regression
(D) Denial
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
Exam (cont’d)
9.
Signs and symptoms of clinical depression include
(A) Apathy
(B) Intense hunger
(C) Sudden chest pain
(D) Breath that smells fruity
10. A ______ is an intense form of anxiety.
(A) Phobia
(B) Coping mechanism
(C) Fallacy
(D) Situation response
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
Exam (cont’d)
11. Which of the following is a good way for an HHA to care for a mentally ill
client?
(A) The HHA should do everything for the client.
(B) The HHA should administer the client’s medication.
(C) The HHA should support the client and his or her family and friends.
(D) The HHA should encourage the client to stop being mentally ill and just
get better.
12. Which of the following statements about observing mentally ill clients is
true?
(A) An HHA does not need to report a comment about suicide as long as it
is a joke.
(B) An HHA needs to report changes in mood.
(C) Withdrawal does not need to be reported.
(D) Imagined physical symptoms do not need to be reported.
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
Exam (cont’d)
13. A client has been acting a little strangely lately. She says that she cannot
find money that she knows should be in the house. She forgets simple
things and seems irritable most of the time. Sometimes her HHA smells
alcohol and cigarettes on her clothes when she is doing the laundry. What
would be the best response by the HHA?
(A) Call a counselor and suggest he come to the house to talk with the
client.
(B) Tell the client that the HHA has noticed these issues and feels that the
client has a problem.
(C) Discuss what the HHA has noticed with the client’s family in the hope of
staging an intervention.
(D) Report the HHA’s observations to her supervisor.
14. The
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
fear of being in a confined space is called
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Obsessive compulsive disorder
Claustrophobia
Schizophrenia
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
Exam (cont’d)
15. A brain disorder that affects a person’s ability to think clearly and
understand reality is
(A) Clinical depression
(B) Claustrophobia
(C) Bipolar disorder
(D) Schizophrenia
16. An anxiety-related disorder that is characterized by repetitive thoughts or
behavior is
(A) Generalized anxiety disorder
(B) Post-traumatic stress disorder
(C) Obsessive-compulsive disorder
(D) Panic disorder
18
Mental Health and Mental Illness
Exam (cont’d)
17. Which of the following is a common set of treatments for mental illness?
(A) Electroconvulsive (shock) therapy and psychosurgery
(B) Medication and psychotherapy
(C) Psychotherapy and psychosurgery
(D) Medication and electroconvulsive (shock) therapy