Survey

Document related concepts

Electrification wikipedia, lookup

Mains electricity wikipedia, lookup

History of electric power transmission wikipedia, lookup

Power engineering wikipedia, lookup

Buck converter wikipedia, lookup

Switched-mode power supply wikipedia, lookup

Opto-isolator wikipedia, lookup

Alternating current wikipedia, lookup

Voltage optimisation wikipedia, lookup

Power electronics wikipedia, lookup

Distribution management system wikipedia, lookup

Pulse-width modulation wikipedia, lookup

Variable-frequency drive wikipedia, lookup

Power inverter wikipedia, lookup

Electrical substation wikipedia, lookup

Immunity-aware programming wikipedia, lookup

Power over Ethernet wikipedia, lookup

Electric power system wikipedia, lookup

Solar micro-inverter wikipedia, lookup

Power MOSFET wikipedia, lookup

Amtrak's 25 Hz traction power system wikipedia, lookup

Control system wikipedia, lookup

Power factor wikipedia, lookup

Wireless power transfer wikipedia, lookup

Flip-flop (electronics) wikipedia, lookup

Time-to-digital converter wikipedia, lookup

Transcript

After Tech. Mapping K 1 =3, k 2 =3 80 SIS+LEVEL MAP 70 SIS+OURS+LEVEL MAP Improvement Ratio Power(mW), Ratio 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 h=2 6 h=3 h=3 10 h=4 h=5 h=3 15 h=4 Fanin, Height h=5 h=5 20 h=6 h=7 h=8 7. Circuit Level Design Buffer Chain • • Delay analysis of buffer chain (W / L) k 1 a (W / L) k n Ck a k Cin a k 1C p n Td t d (k ) a t0 n a t0 k 1 Pk Ck Vdd f Vdd f a i 1 (a Cin C p ) 2 k 1 n 2 PT Pk Vdd f (a Cin C p ) C L a Cin n 2 k 1 ln( C L / Cin ) ln( a ) ln( C L / Cin ) Td a t0 ln( a ) (Td ) 0 a (a ) optimum e 2.72 , n size 1 Delay analysis considering parasitic capacitance,Cp Eff a n 1 a 1 a n 1 a n 1 a n 2 a 1 a 2 ~ 10 (typical : e) Ck,Pk: stage k buffer output의 total capacitance, power PT: buffer chain의 power consumption Pn: load capacitance CL의 power consumption (n) optimum ln( C L / Cin ) size a size a i-2 Eff: power efficiency pn/pT size ai-1 size an-1 input C in stage 1 stage 1 aC in ai-1 C in stage (i-1) aiC in stage i C in = an C in stage n Slew Rate • Determining rise/fall time I mean I short t3 t 2 2 I short (t )dt I short (t )dt T t1 t2 t 4 2 I short (t )dt T t1 t 4 2 (Vin Vt ) 2 dt T t1 2 where, n p , Vtp Vtn Vt PSC I mean Vdd where, t r t f 2 (Vdd 2Vt ) 3 f Period T Vin Vdd +V tp tr Vtn Imax Imean t1 t2 t3 tf Slew Rate(Cont’d) • Power consumption of Short circuit current in Oscillation Circuit Vo Vo Vdd Vdd Vi Vi Vdd Vi Vdd Vo Pass Transistor Logic • • Reducing Area/Power – Macro cell(Large part in chip area) XOR/XNOR/MUX(Primitive) Pass Tr. Logic – Not using charge/discharge scheme Appropriate in Low Power Logic Pass Tr logic Family – CPL (Complementary Pass Transistor Logic) – DPL (Dual Pass Transistor Logic) – SRPL (Swing Restored Pass Transistor Logic) • CPL B – Basic AScheme B A B B AB AB A B B – Inverter Buffering A B B Vdddd V AB AB p-MOS Latch Pass Transistor Logic(Cont’d) • DPL – Pass Tr Network + Dual p-MOS – Enables rail-to-rail swing – Characteristics • Increasing input capacitance(delay) • Increasing driving ability for existing 2 ON-path • equals CPL in input loading capacitance • A A B B B B A A AB AB SRPL – Pass Tr network + Cross coupled inverter – Restoring logic level – Inverter size must not be too big n-MOS CPL network Dynamic Logic • • • Using Precharge/Evaluation scheme Family – Domino logic – NORA(NO RAce) logic Characteristics – Decreasing input loading capacitance – Power consumption in precharge clock – Increasing useless switching in precharging period precharge evaluation • Basic architecture of Domino logic P1 A B A B N Logic Block clk A C in clk N1 CL • • • Input Pin Ordering Reorder the equivalent inputs to a transistor based on critical path delays and power consumption N- input Primitive CMOS logic – symmetrical in function level – antisymmetrical in Tr level • capacitance of output stage • body effect Scheme – The signal that has many transition must be far from output – If it is hard to estimate switching frequency, we must determine pin ordering considering path and path delay balance from primary input to input of Tr. • Example of N-input CMOS logic CL A B C1 C C2 D C3 Experimentd with gate array of TI For a 4-input NAND gate in TI’s BiCMOS gate array library (with a load of 13 inverters), the delay varies by 20% while power dissipation by 10% between a good and bad ordering INPUT PIN Reordering VDD A B C MPA MPB 1 D MPC 1 A MNA MPD CL Simulation result ( tcycle=50ns, tf/tr=1ns) 1 1 1 1 B MNB CB : A가 critical input인 경우 =38.4uW, 1 1 1 1 C MNC CC D가 critical input인 경우 =47.2uW D MND CD 1 (a) (b) 1 (c) (d) Sensitization • Definition – sensitization : input signal that forces output transition event – sensitization vector : the other inputs if one signal is sensitized Y [ f ] X i 0 [ f ] X i 1 X i f ( X 1 ,, X i l ,0, X i 1 ,, X n ) f ( X 1 ,, X i l ,1, X i 1 ,, X n ) • Example X1 X2 X3 Y ( X1 X 2 ) X 3 Y [ f ] X1 0 [ f ] X1 1 X 1 X2X3 X3 X2X3 Sensitization(Cont’d) • Considering Sensitization in Combinational logic:Remove unnecessary transitions in the C.L Q Considering Sensitization in Sequential logic: Also reduces the power consumption in the flipX1 Q Y flops. Combinational D Y Combinational Logic Xn • Q Logic Xn D Q E E X1 Q X1 Y E Q Combinational Logic Combinational Logic Xn Q D Xn E clk D Q Y TTL-Compatible • TTL level signal CMOS input • Vdd IDTTL1 Characteristic Curve of CMOS Inverter Vo V dd = 3.3V IDTTL2 Vin TTL INPUT Vi Vo 1.4V Ileak = avg(I V dd = 3.3V ,I ) d1 d2 PTTL NTTL Vdd ( I DTTL1 I DTTL 2 ) wher e NTTL : number of TTL compatible input pad V IL = 0.8V V IH = 2.0V Vi V dd = 3.3V TTL Compatible(Cont’d) • CMOS output signal TTL input Chip Boundary Chip Boundary – Because of sink current IOL, CMOS gets a large amount of IOL heat – Increased chip operating temperature – Power consumption of whole system Input Pad VOL Output Pad INPUT PIN Reordering ◈ To reduce the power dissipation one should place the input with low transition density near the ground end. (a) If MNA turns off , only CL needs to be charged (b) If MND turns off , all CL, CB, CC and CD needs to be charged (c) If the critical input is rising and placed near output node, the initial charge of CB, CC and CD are zero and the delay time of CL discharging is less than (d) (d) If the critical input is rising and placed near ground end, the charge of CB, CC and CD must dischagge before the charge of CL discharge to zero 저전력 Booth Multiplier 설계 성균관대학교 전기전자컴퓨터공학부 김 진 혁, 이 준 성, 조 준 동 Modified Booth 곱셈기 • Multibit Recoding을 사용하여 부분합의 갯수를 1/2로 줄여 고속의 곱셈을 가능하게 한다. • 피승수(multiplicand) : X , 승수(multiplier) : Y Recoded digit = Y2i-1 + Y2i -2Y2i+1 ( Y-1=0 ) Y2i+1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Y2i 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Y2I-1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Recoded Digit 0 +1 +1 +2 -2 -1 -1 0 Operation on X 0X +1X +1X +2X -2X -1X -1X 0X Recoded Digit Operation on X 0 : Add 0 to the partial product +1 : Add X to the partial product +2 : Shift left X one position and add it to the partial product -1 : Add two’s complement of X to the partial product -2 : Take two’s complement of X and shift left one position < Generation and operation of recoded digit > Modified Booth 곱셈기 - 예 • Example sign extension (-107) 10010101 = X (+105) 01101001 = Y 1111111110010101 00000011010110 000001101011 1100101010 1101010000011101 = P (-11235) Operation Bits recoded +1 -2 -1 +2 010 100 101 011 Wallace Tree - 4:2 Compressor X7 Y7 .............. .............. X0 Y0 : Zero : Bit jumping level : partial product : bit generated by compressor 1st stage 2nd stage Two summands to be added (a) Y 1st stage (block A) 1st stage (block B) 2nd stage (block C) 8 4*8 Partial Product generators 4 X3 , X2 , X1 , X0 8 4-2 compressors 4*8 Partial Product generators 8 4-2 compressors 11 4-2 compressors 16-bit adder P15 P0 (b) 4 X7 , X6 , X5 , X4 Multipliers - Area • 16-bit Multiplier Area 2 Multiplier type Area(mm ) Gate count Array 4.2 2,378 Wallace 8.1 2,544 Modified booth 8.5 3,375 Multiplier - Delay • Average Power Dissipation (16-bit) Multiplier type Power(mW) Logic transitions Array 43.5 7,224 Wallace 32.0 3,793 Modified booth 41.3 3,993 Multiplier - Power • Worst-Case Delay (16-bit) Multiplier type Delay(ns) Gate delays Array 92.6 50 Wallace 54.1 35 Modified booth 45.4 32 Instruction Level Power Analysis • • Estimate power dissipation of instruction sequences and power dissipation of a program Eb : base cost of individual instructions Es : circuit state change effects EM Eb Es E b B i N i • Es O i j N i j , , EM : the overall energy cost of a program Bi : the base cost of type i instruction Ni : the number of type i instruction Oi,j : the cost occurred when a type i instruction is followed by a type j instruction Ni,j : the number of occurrences when a type i instruction is immediately followed by a type j instruction Instruction ordering • • Develop a technique of operand swapping Recoding weight : necessary operation cost of operands W total W i i W i W • • b W in ter Wtotal : total recoding weight of input operand Wi : weight of individual recoded digit i in Booth Multiplier Wb : base weight of an instruction Winter : inter-operation weight of instructions Therefore, if an operand has lower Wtotal , put it in the second input(multiplier). RESULT Circuit State Effects[pJ] when switched Instruction Name Base cost [pJ] LOAD ADD 2’s complement LOAD 1.46 0.18 1.20 ADD 0.86 0.31 2’s complement 0.77 SHIFT 0.29 Circuit State Effects[pJ] when switched SHIFT Instruction Name Base cost [pJ] LOAD ADD 2’s complement SHIFT 1.08 0.73 LOAD 3.25 0.40 2.67 2.38 1.63 0.49 0.61 ADD 1.91 0.58 1.11 1.44 0.27 0.34 2’s complement 1.72 0.55 0.78 0.15 SHIFT 0.65 < 4 b y 4 m ultip lier > 0.38 < 8 b y 8 m ultip lier > Circuit State Effects[pJ] when switched Instruction Name Base cost [pJ] LOAD ADD 2’s complement SHIFT LOAD 4.81 0.59 3.96 3.57 2.40 ADD 2.83 1.02 1.63 2.12 2’s complement 2.55 1.00 1.14 SHIFT 0.96 < 12 b y 12 m ultip lier > 0.78 Conclusion % of instances with circuit states effects 9.0% reduction Power[pJ] 35 12 30 10 12bit 8bit 0 4bit 5 bits 4 2 0 average 10 6 12bit 4.0% reduction 8 8bit 20 15 circuit states effects not considered circuit states effects considered 12.0% reduction 4bit 25 bits 8. Layout Level Design Device Scaling of Factor of S • • • • • • • • • Constant scaled wire increases coupling capacitance by S and wire resistance by S Supply Voltage by 1/S, Theshold Voltage by 1/S, Current Drive by 1/S Gate Capaitance by 1/S, Gate Delay by 1/S Global Interconnection Delay, RC load+para by S Interconnect Delay: 50-70% of Clock Cycle Area: 1/S2 Power dissipation by 1/S - 1/S2 ( P = nCVdd2f, where nC is the sum of capacitance times #transitions) SIA (Semiconductor Industry Association): On 2007, physical limitation: 0.1 m 20 billion transistors, 10 sqare centimeters , 12 or 16 inch wafer Delay Variations at Low-Voltage • At high supply voltage, the delay increases with temperature (mobility is decreasing with temperature) while at very low supply voltages the delay decreases with temperature (VT is decreasing with temperature). • At low supply voltages, the delay ratio between large and minimum transistor widths W increases in several factors. • Delay balancing of clock trees based on wire snaking in order to avoid clock-skew. In this case, at low supply voltages, slightly VT variations can significantly modify the delay balancing. Quarter Micron Challenge • • • • • • • • • • • • • Computers/peripherals (SOC): 1996 ($50 Billion) 1999 ($70 Billion) Wiring dominates delay: wire R comparable to gate driver R; wire/wire coupling C > C to ground Push beyond 0.07 micron Quest for area(past), speed-speed (now), power-power-power(future) Accelerated increases of clock frequencies Signal integrity-based tools Design styles (chip + packages) System-level design(system partitioning) Synthesis with multiple constraints (power,area,timing) Partitioning/MCM Increasing speed limits complicate clock and power distribution Design bounded by wires, vias, via resistance, coupling Reverse scaling: adding area/spacing as needed: widening, thickening of wires, metal shielding & noise avoidance - adding metal CLOCK POWER CONSUMPTION •Clock power consumption is as large as the logic power; Clock Signal carrying the heaviest load and switching at high frequency, clock distribution is a major source of power dissipation. • In a microprocessor, 18% of the total power is consumed by clocking • Clock distribution is designed as a hierarchical clock tree, according to the decomposition principle. Power Consumption per block in typical microprocessor Crosstalk • • • • • • • • • • • Solution for Clock Skew Dynamic Effects on Skew Capacitance Coupling Supply Voltage Deviation (Clock driver and receiver voltage difference) Capacitance deviation by circuit operation Global and local temperature Layout Issues: clocks routed first Must aware of all sources of delay Increased spacing Wider wires Insert buffers Specialized clock need net matching Two approaches: Single Driver, Htree driver • • • • Gated Clocks: The local clocks that are conditionally enabled so that the registers are only clocked during the write cycles. The clock is partitioned in different blocks and each block is clocked with its own clock. Gating the clocks to infrequently used blocks does not provide and acceptable level of power savings Divide the basic clock frequency to provide the lowest clock frequency needed to different parts of the circuit Clock Distribution: large clock buffer waste power. Use smaller clock buffers with a well-balanced clock tree. PowerPC Clocking Scheme CLOCK DRIVERS IN THE DEC ALPHA 21164 DRIVER for PADS or LARGE CAPACITANCES Off-chip power (drivers and pads) are increasing and is very difficult to reduce such a power, as the pads or drivers sizes cannot be decreased with the new technologies. Layout-Driven Resynthesis for Lower Power Low Power Process Vdd • Dynamic Power Dissipation C djp Pd a C L Vdd f 2 I ds 2 (Vgs Vt ) 2 Vin C ovp Vo C ovn C djn n C gate Cox (W L) i 1 m Cin (C gate ) j D j 1 Cov CGD0 W Cdj C j AD C jsw PD AD W D, PD 2(W D ) Drain W C jb C jsw Crosstalk • • • In deep-submicron layouts, some of the netlengths for connection between modules can be so long that they have a resistance which is comparable to the resistance of the driver. Each net in the mixed analog/digital circuits is identified depending upon its crosstalk sensitivity – 1. Noisy = high impedance signal that can disturb other signals, e.g., clock signals. – 2. High-Sensitivity = high impedance analog nets; the most noise sensitive nets such as the input nets to operational amplifiers. – 3. Mid-Sensitivity = low/medium impedance analog nets. – 4. Low-Sensitivity = digital nets that directly affect the analog part in some cells such as control signals. – 5. Non-Sensitivity = The most noise insensitive nets such as pure digital nets, The crosstalk between two interconnection wires also depends on the frequencies (i.e., signal activities) of the signals traveling on the wires. Recently, deep-submicron designs require crosstalk-free channel routing. Power Measure in Layout • • • • • The average dynamic power consumed by a CMOS gate is given below, where C_l is the load capacity at the output of the node, V_dd is the supply voltage, T_cycle is the global clock period, N is the number of transitions of the gate output per clock cycle, C_g is the load capacity due to input capacitance of fanout gates, and C_w is the load capacity due to the interconnection tree formed between the driver and its fanout gates. Pav = (0.5 Vdd2) / (Tcycle Cl N) = (0.5 Vdd2) / (Tcycle (Cg + Cw )N) Logic synthesis for low power attempts to minimize SUMi Cgi Ni Physical design for low power tries to minimize SUMi Cwi Ni . Here Cwi consists of Cxi + CsI, where Cxi is the capacitance of net i due to its crosstalk, and CsI is the substrate capacitance of net i. For low power layout applications, power dissipation due to crosstalk is minimized by ensuring that wires carrying high activity signals are placed sufficiently far from the other wires. Similarly, power dissipation due to substrate capacitance is proportional to the wirelength and its signal activity. 이중 전압을 이용한 저전력 레이아웃 설계 성균관대학교 전기전자컴퓨터공학부 김 진 혁, 이 준 성, 조 준 동 목 • • • • • • • • • 차 연구목적 연구배경 Clustered Voltage Scaling 구조 Row by Row Power Supply 구조 Mix-And-Match Power Supply 구조 Level Converter 구조 Mix-And-Match Power Supply 설계흐름 실험결과 결론 연 구 목 적 및 배경 • 조합회로의 전력 소모량을 줄이는 이중 전압 레이아웃 기법 제안 • 이중 전압 셀을 사용할 때, 한 cell row에 같은 전압의 cell이 배치되면 서 증가하는 wiring 과 track 의 수를 줄임 • 최소 트랜지스터 개수를 사용하는 Level Converter 회로의 구현 • 디바이스의 성능을 유지하면서 이중 전압을 사용하는 Clustered Voltage Scaling [Usami, ’95]을 적 용 • 제안된 Mix-And-Match Power Supply 레이 아웃 구조는 기존의 Row by Row Power Supply [Usami, ’97] 레이 아웃 구조를 개선하여 전력과 면적을 줄임 Clustered Voltage Scaling • 저전력 netlist 를 생성 G5 F/F S 5>0 G4 Slack(S i) = R i - A i G3 G6 G2 S 6>0 S 4>0 G8 S 2<0 S 3>0 LC1 S 8<0 G1 S 1>0 F/F G7 S 7<0 S 9>0 : VDDL S 11<0 F/F : VDDH LC2 G11 G10 S 10<0 G9 : Level Converter Row by Row Power Supply 구조 standard cell VDDL VDDH VDDL cell VDDL VDDH standard cell standard cell VDDL VDDH cell module VSS VDDL cell VDDH cell VDDH VSS Mix-And-Match Power Supply 구조 standard cell VDDL VDDH cell VDDH VDDL VDDL cell VDDH standard cell standard cell module VDDH cell VDDL cell VDDH cell VDDL VDDL VDDH VDDH VSS VSS VDDL cell 구조비교 Conventional Circuit RRPS MAMPS VDDL VDDH VDDH VDDL VDDH module module module Level Converter 구조 • Transistor의 갯수 : 6개 4개 • 전력과 면적면에서 효과적 VDDH VDDH VDDH OUT VDDL VSS/VDDL VSS/VDDH IN Vth=1.5V 기 존 Vth=2.0V 제 안 Mix-And-Match Power Supply Design Flow Single voltage netlist Multiple voltage scaling Netlist with multiple supply voltage (OPUS) Assign supply voltage to each cell Physical placement (Aquarius XO) Routing Synthesis timing, power and area (PowerMill) 실험결과 전체 Power 전체 Area Area (%) power (%) 100 47% 10% 15% 100 2% Conventional circuit RRPS MAMPS Conventional circuit RRPS MAMPS 결 론 • 단일 전압 회로와 비교하여 49.4%의 Power 감소를 Area overhead가 발생 얻은 반면 5.6%의 • 기존의 RRPS 구조보다 10%의 Area 감소와 2%의 Power 감소 • 제안된 Level Converter는 기존의 Level Converter보다 30%의 Area 감소와 35%의 Power 감소 9. CAD tools Low Power Design Tools • Transistor Level Tools (5-10% of silicon) – SPICE, PowerMill(Epic), ADM(Avanti/Anagram), Lsim Power Analyst(mentor) • Logic Level Tools (10-15%) – Design Power and PowerGate (Synopsys), WattWatcher/Gate (Sente), PowerSim (System Sciences), POET (Viewlogic), and QuickPower (Mentor) • Architectural (RTL) Level Tools (20-25%) – WattWatcher/Architect (Sente): 20-25% accuracy • Behavioral (spreadsheet) Level Tools (50-100%) – Active area of academic research Commercial synthesis systems Research synthesis systems AArchitectural synthesis. L - Logic synthesis. Low-Power CAD sites • • • • • • Alternative System Concepts, Inc, : 7X power reduction throigh optimization, contact http://www.ee.princeton.edu and Jake Karrfalt at jake@ascinc.com or (603) 437-2234. Reduction of glitch and clock power; modeling and optimization of interconnect power; power optimization for data-dominated designs with limited control flow. Mentor Graphics QuickPower: Hierarchical of determining overall benet of exchanging the blocks for lower power. powering down or disabling blocks when not in use by gated-clock choose candidates for power-down Calculate the effect of the power-down logic http://www.mentorg.com Synopsys's Power Compiler http://www.synopsys.com/products/power/power_ds Sente's WattWatcher/Architect (first commerical tool operating at the architecture level(20-25 %accuracy). http://www.powereda.com Behavioral Tool: Hyper-LP (Optimization), Explore (Estimation) by J. Rabaey Design Power(Synopsys) • • • DesignPower(TM) provides a single, integrated environment for power analysis in multiple phases of the design process: – Early, quick feedback at the HDL or gate level through probabilistic analysis. – Improved accuracy through simulation-based analysis for gate level and library exploration. DesignPower estimates switching, internal cell and leakage power. It accepts user-defined probabilities, simulation toggle data or a combination of both as input. DesignPower propagates switching information through sequential devices, including flip-flops and latches. It supports sequential, hierarchical, gated-clock, and multiple-clock designs. For simulation toggle data, it links directly to Verilog and VHDL simulators, including Synopsys' VSS. 10. References References [1] Gary K. Yeap, "Practical Low Power Digital VLSI Design", Kluwer Academic Publishers. [2] Jan M. Rabaey, Massoud Pedram, "Low Power Design Methodologies", Kluwer Academic Publishers. [3] Abdellatif Bellaouar, Mohamed I. Elmasry, "Low-Power Digital VLSI Design Circuits And Systems", Kluwer Academic Publishers. [4] Anantha P. Chandrakasan, Robert W. Brodersen, "Low Power Digital CMOS Design", Kluwer Academic Publishers. [5] Dr. Ralph Cavin, Dr. Wentai Liu, "1996 Emerging Technologies : Designing Low Power Digital Systems" [6] Muhammad S. Elrabaa, Issam S. Abu-Khater, Mohamed I. Elmasry, "Advanced Low-Power Digital Circuit Techniques", Kluwer Academic Publishers. References • • • • • [BFKea94] R. Bechade, R. Flaker, B. Kaumann, and et. al. A 32b 66 mhz 1.8W Microprocessor". In IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuit Conference, pages 208-209, 1994. [BM95] Bohr and T. Mark. Interconnect Scaling - The real limiter to high performance ULSI". In proceedings of 1995 IEEE international electron devices meeting, pages 241-242, 1995. [BSM94] L. Benini, P. Siegel, and G. De Micheli. Saving Power by Synthesizing Gated Clocks for Sequential Circuits". IEEE Design and Test of Computers, 11(4):32-41, 1994. [GH95] S. Ganguly and S. Hojat. Clock Distribution Design and Verification for PowerPC Microprocessor". In International Conference on Computer-Aided Design, page Issues in Clock Designs, 1995. [MGR96] R. Mehra, L. M. Guerra, and J. Rabaey. Low Power Architecture Synthesis and the Impact of Exploiting Locality". In Journal of VLSI Signal Processing,, 1996.