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DO NOW 1/28/15
1. In which lobe is the primary somatosensory cortex located?
What is its purpose?
2. A knee-jerk reflex is considered to be a two -neuron reflex
arc. Describe the dif ference between a two -neuron and
three-neuron reflex arc.
3. Which lobes does the lateral fissure separate?
4. What is the function of the occipital lobe?
5. In which lobe are auditory and smelling sensations
interpreted?
6. What structure connects the two hemispheres of the brain?
7. How can you explain an amputee experiencing sensations,
even pain, in their phantom limb based on your knowledge
of the cerebral cortex?
PHANTOM LIMBS
Individuals who undergo amputations
sometimes feel extreme pain in their
amputated “limb” even after its removal
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1mHIv5To
MTM
BY THE END OF CLASS TODAY, WE WILL
BE ABLE TO




Describe the protective structures of the brain
Identify the structures of the diencephalon
Describe the functions of the thalamus and hypothalamus
Create graphs that illustrate experimental results
THE MENINGES
Dura mater - outermost layer
Arachnoid mater - no blood
vessels, in between layer
(resembles a spider web)
Pia mater -inner membrane,
contains nerves and blood
vessels to nourish cells
Dura mater is being
peeled away in this
photo.
VENTRICLES
 Four fluid-filled cavities in the brain that contain
cerebrospinal fluid
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF)
 Clear, colorless liquid that circulates in the ventricles and
within the dura
 Functions of CSF:
 Buoyancy – brain floats in the CSF which keeps it from being crushed
by its own weight
 Protection – cushions against
sudden movements
 Environmental stability –
transports nutrients and
chemicals and removes waste
from the brain
BRAIN STEM
Consists of 3 parts:
 Midbrain
 Pons
 Medulla oblongata
MIDBRAIN
 Visual reflexes and eye movements
 Superior colliculi – visual reflex center, track moving objects
and turn eyes and head in response to visual stimulus
 Inferior colliculi – auditory reflex center, turn head and eyes
in the direction of a sound
PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA
 Pons = Sensory and motor connections extend to the
brain and spinal cord
 Medulla oblongata = controls heart rate, blood
pressure, and respiratory rate
CEREBELLUM
 Second largest part of the brain (after cerebrum)
 Lies under the occipital lobe of the cerebrum
 Helps control muscle contractions to produce coordinated
movements, maintain balance, move smoothly, and sustain
normal posture
THE LIMBIC SYSTEM
 A group of structures in the brain that work together to
process and experience emotions and memories
 “emotional brain”
 Hippocampus – plays a major role in memory storage
and forming long-term memories
 Because you would remember if you saw a hippo on campus…
 Amygdala – connects to the hippocampus and is involved
with storing emotions with memories, especially fear
 Olfactory bulbs, tracts, and cortex – odors provoke
certain emotions or memories?
DIENCEPHALON
 “in-between” or “inter” brain
 Includes:
 Thalamus
 Hypothalamus
THALAMUS
 “Relay station” and “filter”
 All incoming sensory information is processed in the thalamus
 Not all sensory information is forwarded to the cerebrum
because the thalamus filters out sensory information
HYPOTHALAMUS
 Regulates the autonomic nervous
system






Hormones
Heart rate
Sleep-wake cycle
Blood pressure
Body temperature
Hunger
 http://bcs.worthpublishers.com/psyc
hsim5/Hunger%20And%20The%20Fa
t%20Rat/PsychSim_Shell.html