Aim: What were the causes of the French Revolution? Do Now: Why would people seek to overthrow their nation’s government? French Revolution In France, economic misery, hunger and a lack of individual rights led to a revolution (revolt) against the absolute monarchy in 1789. Discussion: Why do people rebel against their governments? What are they deprived of? Impact of American Revolution The American republic stood as a symbol of freedom to both Europe and Latin America The United States Constitution created the most liberal government of its time. Other nations would copy these ideas. The success of the American Revolution would soon inspire major global changes as other peoples challenged the power of absolute monarchs. The French Revolution Begins Soon after the American Revolution, a major revolution broke out in France in 1789. Causes of the French Revolution Absolute Monarchy Absolute Monarchy – Under absolutism most people in France were denied basic rights. Louis XVI both believed they held the divine right, or god’s authority to rule. Discussion: Why did Thomas Hobbes think believe absolute monarchs should rule people? The Palace at Versailles Social Inequality People in France belonged to social classes called estates. 1st Estate – Clergy (church) 2nd Estate – Nobility (Wealthy) 3rd Estate – City dwellers, Bourgeoisie (middle class) and peasants. The 3rd Estate had to pay all the taxes and had no political rights French Social Structure French Society 1st Estate 2nd Estate 3rd Estate French Social Pyramid 1st Estate 0.5% 2nd Estate 1.5% Economic Injustices The French monarchy spent $ on palaces and expensive wars making France bankrupt. The tax burden was placed on the 3rd Estate. Bad harvests and the rise of food prices left people without enough to eat causing food riots. Aim: What were the causes of the French Revolution? Do Now: What would you have done if you were Louis XVI of France to prevent the revolution? •Create programs to get food to the poor and jobs •Give the 3rd Estate more rights •Make taxes more fair. Tax the wealthy in the 1st and 2nd Estate. •Live a less extravagant lifestyle. Enlightenment Enlightenment ideas led people to question the traditional social order. It was not reasonable, they felt, for the First and Second Estates to have privileges at the expense of the Third Estate. I may not believe in what you say, but I’ll defend to the death your right to say it People have the natural rights of life liberty and property English and American Examples England’s Glorious Revolution provided an example of how existing authority could be challenged. In addition, the French were inspired by the success of the American Revolution. Ironically Louis XVI heavily supported the American Revolution Discussion: What is the irony of King Louis the XVI supporting the American’s in their fight for independence. List Three Factors that Led to the French Revolution. Use your notes and be Specific. 1. 2. 3. Aim: How did the events of the French Revolution affect France? Do Now: The image of the guillotine is synonymous with the French Revolution. Who do you think went to the guillotine and why. The French Revolution Begins The Revolution Begins In 1789, King Louis XVI finally called the Estates General, a body made up of representatives of all three estates, into session. The National Assembly The Third Estate declared itself the National Assembly. The National Assembly vowed to write a new constitution for France. Review: What kind of people made up the Third Estate? Declaration of the Rights of Man The National Assembly abolished the privileges of the First and Second Estates and adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man. Based partly on the Declaration of Independence, it contained many Enlightenment ideas. Declaration of the Rights of Man •Written in 1789 •Uses American Declaration of Independence as a model •States that all men have natural Rights •Declares the job of government to protect the natural rights of people •Guarantees all male citizens equality under the law •Sates that people are free to practice any religion •Promises to tax people according to how much they can afford Seizure of the Bastille Working-class people, already rioting over the price of bread, stormed a prison called the Bastille on July 14th 1789 to free political prisoners and get gun powder. In a period known as the Great Fear, peasants attacked nobles throughout France. A Limited Monarchy In 1791, the National Assembly wrote a new constitution: A limited (constitutional) monarchy It stated that people had natural rights and that the government must protect these rights It put the state under church control Discussion: How was the English monarch limited under The English Magna Carta and English Bill of Rights? The Rest of Europe Watches Events in France with Concern As news of the revolution spread across Europe, rulers of the other nations feared these revolutionary ideas would spread into their nations. They threatened to intervene with military force and put the King back on the thrown of France. In 1792 the French decided on a preemptive strike on its enemies and declared war on Austria. Soon Prussia and Great Britain joined the fight against France. France at this time was also experiencing civil war as well as the attacks by foreign powers. Discussion: How can revolution in one country affect other countries? The Rest of Europe Watches Events in France with Concern As news of the revolution spread across Europe, rulers of the other nations feared these revolutionary ideas would spread into their nations. They threatened to intervene with military force and put the King back on the thrown of France. In 1792 the French decided on a preemptive strike on its enemies and declared war on Austria. Soon Prussia and Great Britain joined the fight against France. France at this time was also experiencing civil war as well as the attacks by foreign powers. Discussion: How can revolution in one country affect other countries? The Reign of Terror The war was going bad for France. Soon radicals took control, abolished the monarchy and declared a French Republic. In 1793 King Louis XVI was executed for treason. An era in France known as the Reign of Terror led began and was led by Maximilien Robespierre. During this time thousands of people were sent to the guillotine. Within a year; however, the violence turned on Robespierre himself when he met the guillotine. Moderates Return Beginning in 1795 a five man “Directory” supported by a legislature held power in France, however the government was weak. Rising bread prices brought the threat of riots. Into this chaotic situation stepped an ambitious military leader, Napoleon Bonaparte. Discussion: Why do you think the French people wanted a more moderate government after the reign of Robespierre? Napoleon’s Rise to Power When the Revolution started, Napoleon was a only an artillery captain. Napoleon rose through the ranks and won important victories against the France’s enemies. Napoleon helped overthrow the Directory in a coup d’ etat or revolt by military force. He put himself in charge of the government and crowned himself Emperor. The French people hoping for stability, supported Napoleon taking charge. Napoleon’s Achievements Economy – Napoleon controlled prices, supported new industry and built roads and canals Education – Napoleon established a government public school system Napoleonic Code – The Napoleonic Code was a legal code that included many Enlightenment ideas, such as the legal equality of citizens and religious toleration. Discussion: What other law codes have we learned about? Napoleon’s Empire From 1804 to 1814, Napoleon ruled an empire that controlled much of Europe. Only Britain and Russia remained. Britain was safe because it was an island and had a strong navy. The Russians believed their countries large size and harsh weather would protect them. The British Royal Navy blockaded French ports. The British defeated Napoleon’s navy at the Battle of Nile and the Battle of Trafalgar Napoleon’s Empire From 1804 to 1814, Napoleon ruled an empire. He had defeated most of Frances enemies on the battlefield and conquered much of Europe. Only Britain and Russia remained beyond Napoleons reach. Britain was safe in being an island and having a strong navy. The Russians believed their countries large size and harsh weather would protect them. Napoleon’s biggest problem was the British Royal Navy that was blockading French ports and sinking his ships. The British navy defeated Napoleon’s navy at the Battle of Nile and the Battle of Trafalgar What two major European countries were not defeated by Napoleon? Why? The French Empire Napoleon’s Fall People in most conquered countries looked at Napoleon’s armies as oppressors. Inspired by nationalism people revolted against French rule. In 1812 Napoleon invaded Russia. As the Russians retreated they practiced a scorched earth policy in which they burned crops and villages. This left nothing for Napoleon’s army as they marched further into the vast country. Most of Napoleons army was destroyed during the long Russian winter as they made the long retreat back to French territory. Napoleons Last Stand A year after Napoleons disastrous retreat from Russia, an alliance of Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia defeated Napoleon in 1814. Napoleon returned to power in 1815, but the British and Prussians defeated him at the decisive Battle of Waterloo. Why do you think the French people welcomed Napoleon back in 1815? Why is it a bad idea to invade Russia? If you had to do it what would you do to avoid the fate of Napoleon’s army? Effects of French Revolution The French Revolution had a deep impact on France, the rest of Europe and Latin America. Nationalism – Revolution in France inspired national pride that replaced old allegiances to monarchs. Napoleon’s conquests increased these feelings throughout Europe and his weakening of Spain led to Latin American Independence movements. Effects of the French Revolution Democratic Ideas – As Napoleon’s armies spread across Europe they also spread democratic ideas. People wanted liberty from absolute monarchs. Other nations began a struggle for equality and liberty. Congress of Vienna After Napoleon’s defeat, European delegates met at the Congress of Vienna to create a peace settlement. The main goal of the participants was to restore order and stability to Europe. Views of Participants at Congress of Vienna Diplomats from Austria, Russia, Britain and Prussia brought differing ideas about the aims of the Congress Clemens von Metternich of Austria was the dominant figure at the Congress and wanted to restore Europe to the way it was before the French Revolution Alexander I of Russia wanted to create an alliance of Christian monarchs to prevent future revolutions Lord Castlereagh of England wanted to prevent France from rebuilding its military forces. Maurice Talleyrand of France wanted to obtain equal footing for France with the rest of the nations. Peace at Last? The Congress of Vienna made a lot of progress. The main goals were Create a balance of power in Europe. Restore the monarchs. They did not want to punish France by making them give up large territory or pay large sums of money. Discussion: Why didn’t the peace makers at the Congress of Vienna want to punish France for the Napoleonic wars?