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Transcript
Aim: What were the causes of the French
Revolution?

Do Now: Why would people seek to
overthrow their nation’s government?
French Revolution


In France, economic misery, hunger and a
lack of individual rights led to a revolution
(revolt) against the absolute monarchy in
1789.
Discussion: Why do people rebel against
their governments? What are they
deprived of?
Impact of American Revolution



The American republic stood as a symbol
of freedom to both Europe and Latin
America
The United States Constitution created
the most liberal government of its time.
Other nations would copy these ideas.
The success of the American Revolution
would soon inspire major global changes as
other peoples challenged the power of
absolute monarchs.
The French Revolution Begins

Soon after the American Revolution, a
major revolution broke out in France in
1789.
Causes of the
French
Revolution
Absolute Monarchy


Absolute Monarchy – Under absolutism
most people in France were denied basic
rights. Louis XVI both believed they held
the divine right, or god’s authority to rule.
Discussion: Why did Thomas Hobbes think
believe absolute monarchs should rule
people?
The Palace at Versailles
Social Inequality
People in France belonged to social classes
called estates.
 1st Estate – Clergy (church)
 2nd Estate – Nobility (Wealthy)
 3rd Estate – City dwellers, Bourgeoisie
(middle class) and peasants.

The 3rd Estate had to pay all the taxes and
had no political rights
French Social Structure
French Society
1st Estate
2nd Estate
3rd Estate
French Social Pyramid
1st Estate 0.5%
2nd Estate 1.5%
Economic Injustices


The French monarchy spent $ on palaces
and expensive wars making France
bankrupt. The tax burden was placed on
the 3rd Estate.
Bad harvests and the rise of food prices
left people without enough to eat causing
food riots.
Aim: What were the causes of the French
Revolution?

Do Now: What would you have done if you
were Louis XVI of France to prevent the
revolution?
•Create programs to get food to
the poor and jobs
•Give the 3rd Estate more rights
•Make taxes more fair. Tax the
wealthy in the 1st and 2nd Estate.
•Live a less extravagant lifestyle.
Enlightenment

Enlightenment ideas led people to question
the traditional social order. It was not
reasonable, they felt, for the First and
Second Estates to have privileges at the
expense of the Third Estate.
I may not
believe in what
you say, but I’ll
defend to the
death your right
to say it
People have
the natural
rights of life
liberty and
property
English and American Examples


England’s Glorious Revolution provided an
example of how existing authority could be
challenged. In addition, the French were
inspired by the success of the American
Revolution. Ironically Louis XVI heavily
supported the American Revolution
Discussion: What is the irony of King Louis
the XVI supporting the American’s in their
fight for independence.
List Three Factors that Led to the French
Revolution. Use your notes and be Specific.
1.
2.
3.
Aim: How did the events of the French
Revolution affect France?

Do Now: The image of the guillotine is
synonymous with the French Revolution.
Who do you think went to the guillotine and
why.
The French
Revolution
Begins
The Revolution Begins

In 1789, King Louis XVI finally called the
Estates General, a body made up of
representatives of all three estates, into
session.
The National Assembly

The Third Estate declared itself the National
Assembly. The National Assembly vowed to
write a new constitution for France.

Review: What kind of people made up the
Third Estate?
Declaration of the Rights of Man

The National Assembly abolished the
privileges of the First and Second Estates
and adopted the Declaration of the Rights of
Man. Based partly on the Declaration of
Independence, it contained many
Enlightenment ideas.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
•Written in 1789
•Uses American Declaration of Independence as a model
•States that all men have natural Rights
•Declares the job of government to protect the natural rights
of people
•Guarantees all male citizens equality under the law
•Sates that people are free to practice any religion
•Promises to tax people according to how much they
can afford
Seizure of the Bastille

Working-class people, already rioting over
the price of bread, stormed a prison called
the Bastille on July 14th 1789 to free political
prisoners and get gun powder. In a period
known as the Great Fear, peasants attacked
nobles throughout France.
A Limited Monarchy




In 1791, the National Assembly wrote a new
constitution:
A limited (constitutional) monarchy
It stated that people had natural rights and that the
government must protect these rights
It put the state under church control
Discussion: How was the English monarch limited
under The English Magna Carta and English Bill of
Rights?
The Rest of Europe Watches Events in
France with Concern

As news of the revolution spread across Europe,
rulers of the other nations feared these revolutionary
ideas would spread into their nations. They threatened
to intervene with military force and put the King back
on the thrown of France. In 1792 the French decided
on a preemptive strike on its enemies and declared
war on Austria. Soon Prussia and Great Britain joined
the fight against France. France at this time was also
experiencing civil war as well as the attacks by foreign
powers.

Discussion: How can revolution in one country affect
other countries?
The Rest of Europe Watches Events in
France with Concern

As news of the revolution spread across Europe,
rulers of the other nations feared these revolutionary
ideas would spread into their nations. They threatened
to intervene with military force and put the King back
on the thrown of France. In 1792 the French decided
on a preemptive strike on its enemies and declared
war on Austria. Soon Prussia and Great Britain joined
the fight against France. France at this time was also
experiencing civil war as well as the attacks by foreign
powers.

Discussion: How can revolution in one country affect
other countries?
The Reign of Terror


The war was going bad for France. Soon radicals
took control, abolished the monarchy and declared a
French Republic. In 1793 King Louis XVI was
executed for treason.
An era in France known as the Reign of Terror led
began and was led by Maximilien Robespierre.
During this time thousands of people were sent to
the guillotine. Within a year; however, the violence
turned on Robespierre himself when he met the
guillotine.
Moderates Return

Beginning in 1795 a five man
“Directory” supported by a
legislature held power in France,
however the government was
weak. Rising bread prices brought
the threat of riots. Into this chaotic
situation stepped an ambitious
military leader, Napoleon
Bonaparte.

Discussion: Why do you think the
French people wanted a more
moderate government after the
reign of Robespierre?
Napoleon’s Rise to Power

When the Revolution started, Napoleon was a
only an artillery captain. Napoleon rose
through the ranks and won important victories
against the France’s enemies. Napoleon
helped overthrow the Directory in a coup d’
etat or revolt by military force. He put himself
in charge of the government and crowned
himself Emperor. The French people hoping
for stability, supported Napoleon taking charge.
Napoleon’s Achievements




Economy – Napoleon controlled prices, supported new
industry and built roads and canals
Education – Napoleon established a government
public school system
Napoleonic Code – The Napoleonic Code was a legal
code that included many Enlightenment ideas, such as
the legal equality of citizens and religious toleration.
Discussion: What other law codes have we learned
about?
Napoleon’s Empire



From 1804 to 1814, Napoleon ruled an empire
that controlled much of Europe.
Only Britain and Russia remained. Britain was
safe because it was an island and had a strong
navy. The Russians believed their countries
large size and harsh weather would protect
them.
The British Royal Navy blockaded French
ports. The British defeated Napoleon’s navy at
the Battle of Nile and the Battle of Trafalgar
Napoleon’s Empire



From 1804 to 1814, Napoleon ruled an empire. He
had defeated most of Frances enemies on the
battlefield and conquered much of Europe.
Only Britain and Russia remained beyond
Napoleons reach. Britain was safe in being an island
and having a strong navy. The Russians believed
their countries large size and harsh weather would
protect them.
Napoleon’s biggest problem was the British Royal
Navy that was blockading French ports and sinking
his ships. The British navy defeated Napoleon’s
navy at the Battle of Nile and the Battle of Trafalgar
What two major
European countries
were not defeated by
Napoleon? Why?
The French
Empire
Napoleon’s Fall


People in most conquered countries looked at
Napoleon’s armies as oppressors. Inspired by
nationalism people revolted against French rule.
In 1812 Napoleon invaded Russia. As the
Russians retreated they practiced a scorched
earth policy in which they burned crops and
villages. This left nothing for Napoleon’s army as
they marched further into the vast country. Most
of Napoleons army was destroyed during the
long Russian winter as they made the long
retreat back to French territory.
Napoleons Last Stand

A year after Napoleons disastrous retreat
from Russia, an alliance of Russia, Britain,
Austria, and Prussia defeated Napoleon in
1814. Napoleon returned to power in 1815,
but the British and Prussians defeated him at
the decisive Battle of Waterloo.

Why do you think the French people
welcomed Napoleon back in 1815?
Why is it a bad idea to
invade Russia? If you had
to do it what would you do
to avoid the fate of
Napoleon’s army?
Effects of French Revolution
The French Revolution had a deep impact on
France, the rest of Europe and Latin
America.
 Nationalism – Revolution in France inspired
national pride that replaced old allegiances
to monarchs. Napoleon’s conquests
increased these feelings throughout Europe
and his weakening of Spain led to Latin
American Independence movements.
Effects of the French Revolution

Democratic Ideas – As Napoleon’s armies
spread across Europe they also spread
democratic ideas. People wanted liberty from
absolute monarchs. Other nations began a
struggle for equality and liberty.
Congress of Vienna

After Napoleon’s defeat, European delegates
met at the Congress of Vienna to create a
peace settlement. The main goal of the
participants was to restore order and stability
to Europe.
Views of Participants at Congress of
Vienna
Diplomats from Austria, Russia, Britain and Prussia
brought differing ideas about the aims of the Congress
 Clemens von Metternich of Austria was the
dominant figure at the Congress and wanted to
restore Europe to the way it was before the French
Revolution
 Alexander I of Russia wanted to create an alliance of
Christian monarchs to prevent future revolutions
 Lord Castlereagh of England wanted to prevent
France from rebuilding its military forces.
 Maurice Talleyrand of France wanted to obtain equal
footing for France with the rest of the nations.
Peace at Last?




The Congress of Vienna made a lot of progress. The
main goals were
Create a balance of power in Europe.
Restore the monarchs.
They did not want to punish France by making them
give up large territory or pay large sums of money.
Discussion: Why didn’t the peace makers at the
Congress of Vienna want to punish France for the
Napoleonic wars?