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Transcript
Animal Science
Anatomy and Physiology
Structure and Function of
Organs and Organ Systems
2. Function of the Skeletal
System

Function
 Provides
protection, support, and
structure for all systems and organs.
 Provides attachment for muscles
 Provides storage for minerals (ex: Ca)
3. What makes up the skeletal
system?



Bone
 Made of minerals that provide housing for
living cells
Cartilage
 Firm, flexible tissues that are not as hard
as bone
Bone Marrow
 Production site of blood cells and
platelets.
5. What else makes up the
skeletal system?
 Joints
 Where
different bones meet
 Ligaments
 Connect
tissue
bones to other bones; tough
6. Function of the Muscle System
 Function
 Provides
movement for
the animal
 Provides movement for
proper function of organs
Qui ckT ime™ and a
TI FF (Uncompres sed) decompres sor
are needed t o s ee thi s pi cture.
7. Three types of muscle tissue

Skeletal Muscle
 Provides
movement for the
bones
 Voluntary movement
 Composed of long, striated
bundles that contract and
relax
 Examples: Biceps, Quads
7. Types of muscle cont.

Smooth Muscle
 Controls
movements of the
internal organs
 Involuntary movements
 Composed of spindle
shaped cells
 Examples: Digestive tract,
urinary tract
7. Types of muscle cont.
7. Types of muscle cont.

Cardiac Muscle
Muscle that controls the beating of
the heart
Involuntary
8. What is the Integumentary
System?


The Integumentary System includes:
 Skin
 Hair
 Finger and Toe Nails
The Integumentary System’s Function:
 Barrier against infection and injury
 Regulates body temperature
 Removes wastes
 Provides protection from Ultra Violet radiation
9. What is Skin?

Layers of Skin
 Epidermis
Outer Layer of the skin
 Contains both dead and living cells
 Non-vascular tissue (no blood vessels)
 Cells in the epidermis make Keratin and
Melanin

Keratin- tough protein found in hair
 Melanin- pigment that absorbs UV light

9. What is Skin?

Layers of Skin
 Dermis
 Inside layer of the skin
 Contains collagen, hair follicles, nerves, smooth muscle
and glands
 Vascular tissue (has blood vessels)
 Two types of glands:


Sweat glands- secretes water and salts to cool the body
down and remove waste from the blood.
Sebaceous (oil) glands- secretes Sebum (oil) to keep the
epidermis flexible and waterproof and to make hair soft
and flexible.
11. Function of the Circulatory
System
 Function
 Transports:
Water
 Oxygen
 Wastes

 Regulates
temperature
 Removes disease
12. What is the heart?

Heart
 Center
of the circulatory
system
 Large, powerful muscle
 Beats continuously to
pump blood to the entire
body
13. What else makes up
Circulatory System?
 Blood
Vessels
Arteries

Vessels that take blood
away from the heart
Veins

Vessels that return
blood to the heart
13. Blood Vessels cont.
Capillaries
Connects arteries and
veins
 Delivers nutrients and
oxygen to the cells
 Removes wastes from
cells

14. What is blood?

Red Blood cells



White Blood cells



Give blood color
Carry oxygen
Destroy disease
Gives white color to pus
Platelets


Made of plasma proteins
Forms blood clots
15. Structure of the heart

Four Chambers
 Right

Receives deoxygenated blood into the heart
from the body via veins
 Right

Atrium
Receives oxygenated blood into the heart
from the lungs
 Left

Ventricle
Pumps blood out to the lungs
 Left

Atrium
Ventricle
Pumps blood out into into the body via
arteries
Superior Vena
Cava
Aorta
Pulmonary Artery
Pulmonary Vein
Right Atrium
Right Ventricle
Inferior Vena Cava
Left Atrium
Left Ventricle
15. Structure of the heart cont.

Two Paths of Circulation
 Systemic

Circulation
Circulation of blood from the heart, to the
body, and then back to the heart
 Pulmonary

Circulation
Circulation of blood from the heart, to the
lungs, and then back to the heart
16. Function of the Respiratory
System
 Function:
 Take
Oxygen Exchange
in oxygen from the air
 Place oxygen in the bloodstream
 Remove carbon dioxide
from the body
17. Structures of the Respiratory
System
 Structures
Nostrils

Air intake
Nasal
Chamber
Mouth

Air Intake
17. Structures cont.

Pharynx
 Passageway
for food,
water, and air.
17. Structures cont.

Larynx
 Voice

box (Adam’s apple)
Trachea (Windpipe)
 Large
tube
 Made of rigid cartilaginous rings

Epiglottis
 Flap
that covers the trachea to
prevent food from entering
17. Structures Cont.

Bronchi
 Tubes
that
branch into the
lungs
 Passage for air

Lungs
 Organ
where gas
exchange occcurs
17. Structures cont.

Alveoli
 Tiny
air sacs that are
surrounded by blood
vessels
 Carbon dioxide is
removed from the
blood
 Oxygen is absorbed
into the blood
17. Structures cont.

Diaphragm
 Large
muscle under the lungs
 When contracted, rib cage expands
and air comes in
 When the diaphragm relaxes, air is
forced out
19. Function of the nervous
system

Function:
 Central
System
Nervous
Relays messages to
and from the rest of
the body
 Processes and
analyzes
information
 Includes the brain
and spinal cord

19. Function of nervous system
cont.
 Peripheral
Nervous
System
Transmits motor or
sensory impulses to
the central system
 Includes all nerves
outside of the central
system

20. Structures of the nervous
system

Neurons
 Cells
of the nervous system
 Sensory Neurons- control impulses from the
body to the brain
 Motor Neurons- control impulses from the
brain to the body

Nerves
 Long
fiber like structures made up of neurons
 Impulses travel along nerves to and from the
brain
The Neuron
20. Nervous System structures
cont.

Spinal Cord
 All
nerves connect to
the spinal cord
 Runs through the
backbone (vertebrae)
20. Nervous System structures
cont.

Brain
 Center
of the
nervous system
 Divided into 3
sections
20. Nervous System structures
cont.

Brain
 1.

 2.

 3.

Cerebrum
Controls voluntary
processes and thinking
Cerebellum
Coordinates actions and
movement
(talking/running)
Brain Stem
Controls involuntary
activities (heart beat,
respiration), homeostasis,
and feelings.
21. Function of the digestive
system

Function:
 The
digestive system breaks down food
into a form that the body can use.
Breaks food down to a molecular level that
the body can absorb into the blood stream
 This includes vitamins, minerals, proteins,
carbohydrates, and lipids, and nucleic acids.

21. What does the Digestive
System look like?
22. Where does digestion start?

The Mouth
 Teeth-
tear and crush food to small pieces
 Salivary Glands- secrete saliva which moistens
food so it can be swallowed

Saliva also contains enzymes that break down starches
into sugars and destroys bacteria in food
 Tongue
forms a ball of food called the bolus
With help from the throat muscles pushes food to the
esophagus.
23. Where does the food go next?

The Esophagus
 The
“food tube”
 Smooth muscles line this tube.
Contractions of these muscles, called
peristalsis, push the bolus down to the
stomach.
24. What is the stomach?

The Stomach
 The stomach is a large, muscular sac.
 Most mechanical digestion occurs in the stomach.
 Glands in the stomach secrete mucus to protect
the stomach, hydrochloric acid (HCL) to activate
enzymes, and pepsin.
 The mixture in the stomach is now called chyme
25. What is the Small Intestine?


The small intestine has three parts, the
duodenum, the ileum, and the jejunum.
Most chemical digestion (break down of
chyme by enzymes) occurs in the small
intestine.
26. What are the accessory
organs in the digestive system?

Pancreas The
pancreas is a gland that lies near the
stomach
 The pancreas has three functions:
Produces insulin to regulate blood sugar levels
 Produces enzymes that are secreted into the
small intestine to break down carbohydrates,
proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
 Produces sodium bicarbonate to neutralize the
acidity of the stomach.

26. Accessory organs cont.

Liver
 Largest
internal organ in the body
 Produces Bile

Bile helps dissolve fat
 The
Liver is also responsible for
detoxifying the blood
27. The rest of the system

Large Intestine (or Colon)
 Primary
Function is to remove water
from the remainder of undigested
material
 Also stores this material until excreted

Rectum
 Muscular
the body
tube that passes waste out of
28. Digestive System disorders
Peptic
Ulcers
Caused
by bacteria in the stomach
Creates a hole in the lining of the stomach
Acid
Reflux
Caused
by acid contents in the stomach
being regurgitated into the esophagus.
Damages the lining of the esophagus.
Often referred to as heartburn.
29. What is the excretory system?

Functions of the excretory system:
 Every
cell in the body produces metabolic
wastes.
 The excretory system removes wastes
from the bloodstream and the digestive
tract, then removes these wastes from the
body.
 Excretion plays an important role in
homeostasis.
30. What is the function of the
kidneys?

Kidney Function
 The
kidneys remove wastes from the blood (urea),
maintain blood pH, and regulate the volume of the
blood.
 Kidneys reabsorb 99% of the water that enters
them.
 Kidneys filter the blood of the body every 45 min.
 Kidneys are made up of nephrons.
31. Structure of the Kidney
32. Other excretory structures

Ureter
 Tube
that carries urine from the kidney to the
bladder

Bladder
 Sac-like

organ that stores urine until excreted
Urethra
 Tube
that carries urine from the the bladder to
the outside of the body
32. Other excretory structures

Skin
 The

Skin excretes excess water and salts (sweat).
Lungs
 The
lungs excrete carbon dioxide when animals
exhale.

Liver
 The
liver removes toxins from our bloodstream.
33. What is the Endocrine
System?

Function:
 Composed

of glands that secrete hormones.
Hormones:
 Chemicals
that affect specific parts in the body.
 Hormones control vital function of the body.
 Growth
 Reproduction
 Hormones play a primary role in homeostasis of
the body
34. What are glands?

Exocrine glands Release
secretions through ducts directly to the
organs that use them
 Examples- sweat glands, digestive glands

Endocrine glands Release
secretions directly into the bloodstream
35. Glands of the endocrine
system

Pituitary Gland
 Secretes
nine different hormones that
regulate other endocrine glands

Hypothalamus
 Regulates
hormone production of the Pituitary
35. Endocrine glands cont.

Adrenal Gland
 Releases
Adrenaline and other hormones
that help our body deal with stress
 This includes the fight or flight
response

Thyroid Gland
 Controls
rate of digestion and metabolism
35. Endocrine glands cont.

Pancreas
Has both exocrine and endocrine function
 Exocrine Secretes digestive enzymes into the small
intestine
 Endocrine Secretes insulin and glucagon to regulate
blood sugar levels

35. Endocrine glands cont.

Ovaries
 Produce
and secrete estrogen and progesterone
 Estrogen is responsible for development of eggs
and physical “female characteristics” (e.g.
widening of hips, breast formation)

Testes
 Produce
and secrete testosterone
 Testosterone is responsible for sperm production
and physical “male characteristics” (e.g. deep
voice, facial hair)
37. The Male Reproductive
System

Function Produce
and deliver sperm
 Sperm development is triggered by
testosterone and FSH secreted by the
pituitary
 Sperm production is called
spermatogenesis
37. The Male Reproductive
System

Structures
 Testes-
site of sperm production
 The testes reside outside the body where
the temperature is 1-3 degrees lower.
This creates the ideal temperature for
spermatogenesis
 Seminiferous tubules
Tight coils within the testes. These coils are
where sperm is produced
37. The Male Reproductive
System

Epididymis
 Site

where sperm mature and are stored
Vas Deferens
 Some

sperm move into this tube to be ejaculated
Urethra
 The
Vas Deferens joins the urethra where semen
is ejaculated though the penis to the outside of
the body
37. The Male Reproductive
System
Male Reproductive Glands
Seminal Vesicle, Prostrate gland, and
bulbourethral glands add fluids to the sperm to
create semen
Semen- acts as a carrier to get the sperm
inside the vaginal canal during conception
38. The Female Reproductive
System
Function
Production of Ova (eggs), and development of
the embryo after fertilization
Females are born with thousands of immature
eggs. Ova maturation is triggered by estrogen
and FSH
Production of mature ova is called oogenesis.
38. The Female Reproductive
System
Structures
Ovaries- Site of ova storage and maturation
Ovulation-
process where the mature follicle
releases its egg. This happens once every 28
days
Fallopian
The
Tube (oviduct)
fallopian tube is usually the site of
fertilization
Once fertilized, the egg is called a zygote
38. The Female Reproductive
System
Structures
Uterus
If
a zygote exists, it will implant to the wall of
the uterus and mature
Cervix
Opening
between the uterus and vagina
Vagina
Muscular
passage. Site where semen enters
the female and also site where fetus is
delivered