Chapter 13 Reformation and Religious Warfare in the Sixteenth Century Prelude to Reformation Christian or Northern Renaissance Humanism Theme: reform of church and society Desiderius Erasmus (1466 – 1536) Focus on early Christian writings The power of education Handbook of the Christian Knight (1503) “The philosophy of Christ” The Praise of Folly (1509) Thomas More (1478 – 1535) Utopia (1516) Church and Religion on the Eve of the Reformation The Impact of Church Corruption Pluralism The Search for Salvation Relics “Modern Devotion” Thomas à Kempis – The Imitation of Christ Calls for Reform Internal forces of change within the Catholic Church Martin Luther & the Reformation in Germany The Early Luther From law school to an Augustinian monastery The solution to doubt: “justification by faith” Doctorate in theology (1512) Primacy of the Bible as the sole religious authority The Indulgence Controversy Johann Tetzel and the sale of indulgences The Ninety-Five Theses (1517) The quickening rebellion Pamphlets (1520): Address to the Nobility of the German Nation; The Babylonian Captivity of the Church; On the Freedom of a Christian Man Excommunication and the Diet of Worms (1521) The Rise of Lutheranism The Reform in Print The Spread of Luther’s Ideas Support of the upper classes Dissent within the ranks and the humanists The Peasants’ War (1524) Luther’s German New Testament Sermons and images Luther’s stance: rulers appointed by God Organizing the Church State churches and new religious services Germany and the Reformation: Religion and Politics The Lands and Goals of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1519 – 1556) The French and the Papacy Francis I of France (1515 – 1547) Habsburg – Valois Wars (1521 – 1544) The alliance of Pope Clement VII (1523 – 1534) and Francis I The sack of Rome (1527) Germany and the Reformation: Religion and Politics The Ottoman Empire The new threat to Europe Suleiman the Magnificent (1520 – 1566) The Battle of Mohács (1526) Repulsed at Vienna (1529) Politics in Germany Germany’s fragmented political power The Schmalkaldic League Peace of Augsburg (1555) Division of Christianity acknowledged The Spread of the Protestant Reformation Lutheranism in Scandinavia Monarchs and their state-run churches The Zwinglian Reformation The cantons of the Swiss Confederation Reforms in Zürich The movement of Ulrich Zwingli (1484 – 1531) A Futile Search for Unity Failed attempt to ally with German reformers Swiss civil war The Radical Reformation: The Anabaptists The Ideas of the Anabaptists Church was a voluntary association of believers Adult baptism Return to the practices of early Christianity Separation of church and state Varieties of Anabaptism Swiss Brethren Anabaptists persecuted in Germany, Austrian Habsburg lands, and Switzerland The millenarian example at Münster (1532 – 1535) Menno Simons (1496 – 1561) and the Mennonites Separation from the world The Reformation in England The Marital Troubles of Henry VIII (1509 – 1547) From Catherine of Aragon to Anne Boleyn Policymakers Thomas Cromwell (1485 – 1540) and Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury (1489 – 1556) The New Order Henry’s later marriages and policies The Act of Supremacy (1534) and More’s fate Edward VI (1547 – 1553) Reaction under Mary (“Bloody Mary,” 1553 – 1558) Goals: restore Catholicism, alliance with Spain John Calvin (1509 – 1564) and Calvinism Calvin’s Background and Conversion Flight from France and the Institutes of Christian Religion (1536) Calvin’s Ideas Predestination and the sovereignty of God Two Sacraments The most activist form of Protestantism Baptism The Lord’s Supper Calvin’s Geneva The Consistory and moral discipline The Social Impact of the Protestant Reformation The Family Marriage and sex: new views Women Roles of wife and mother sanctified by Protestants Education in the Reformation The family at the center of human life Protestant encouragement of schools Religious Practices and Popular Culture Altered religious ceremonies and images Protestant criticism of customary entertainment The Catholic Reformation Catholic Reformation or CounterReformation? Reform from within and as a reaction The Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola (1491 – 1556) The Spiritual Exercises Jesuits recognized as a religious order (1540) Absolute obedience to the papacy Activities of the Jesuits Combating Protestantism through education Propagation of Catholic faith among non-Catholics Fight Protestantism A Revived Papacy Pope Paul III (1534 – 1549) Reform commission (1535 – 1537) Recognized Jesuits Summoning of the Council of Trent Roman Inquisition (1542) Pope Paul IV (1555 – 1559) Index of Forbidden Books The Council of Trent Met intermittently from 1545 – 1563 Divisions between moderates and conservatives Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings Scripture and tradition Faith and good works Sacraments Politics and the Wars of Religion in the Sixteenth Century The French Wars of Religion (1562 – 1598) The factions and issues The status and power of the Huguenots Conversion of 40 – 50 percent of French nobility The ultra-Catholics Constitutional crisis and revolt against the monarchy The politiques Course of the struggle The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572) Henry IV of Navarre (1589 – 1610) Conversion to Catholicism Edict of Nantes (1598) Philip II (1556 – 1598) and Militant Catholicism The Goals of Philip II Religious conformity Extension of royal power Spanish dominance in Europe The Importance of Catholicism in Spain The Holy League The Battle of Lepanto (1571) Revolt of the Netherlands The Importance of the Netherlands The prosperity of the provinces Religious diversity: Calvinist inroads Resentment against Philip’s attempt to exert control The Eruption of Violence William of Nassau, Prince of Orange The “Sea Beggars” Division: United Provinces of the Netherlands (1581); independence of the Dutch Republic (1648) The England of Elizabeth (1558 – 1603) Religious Policy A compromise settlement Foreign Policy The Act of Uniformity Catholic and Puritan discontents The chief concerns: caution, moderation, and expediency Conflict with Spain The Spanish Armada (1588) The failure of Spanish ambitions Discussion Questions How did the failings of the Catholic Church lead to calls for reform? What were Martin Luther’s complaints against the Church? How and why did Henry VIII break away from Rome? What was John Calvin’s ideas of “predestination”? How did the Catholic Church react to the Reformation? Was it effective? What troubles did Philip II of Spain have to confront during his reign, and how successful was he in dealing with them?