Download Chapter 1

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

English Reformation wikipedia, lookup

Beeldenstorm wikipedia, lookup

Reformation in Switzerland wikipedia, lookup

Scottish Reformation wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Chapter 13
Reformation and Religious
Warfare in the Sixteenth
Century
Prelude to Reformation

Christian or Northern Renaissance
Humanism

Theme: reform of church and society



Desiderius Erasmus (1466 – 1536)




Focus on early Christian writings
The power of education
Handbook of the Christian Knight (1503)
“The philosophy of Christ”
The Praise of Folly (1509)
Thomas More (1478 – 1535)

Utopia (1516)
Church and Religion on the Eve of the
Reformation

The Impact of Church Corruption


Pluralism
The Search for Salvation


Relics
“Modern Devotion”


Thomas à Kempis – The Imitation of Christ
Calls for Reform

Internal forces of change within the Catholic
Church
Martin Luther & the Reformation in
Germany

The Early Luther

From law school to an Augustinian monastery


The solution to doubt: “justification by faith”


Doctorate in theology (1512)
Primacy of the Bible as the sole religious authority
The Indulgence Controversy

Johann Tetzel and the sale of indulgences


The Ninety-Five Theses (1517)
The quickening rebellion


Pamphlets (1520): Address to the Nobility of the
German Nation; The Babylonian Captivity of the
Church; On the Freedom of a Christian Man
Excommunication and the Diet of Worms (1521)
The Rise of Lutheranism

The Reform in Print



The Spread of Luther’s Ideas



Support of the upper classes
Dissent within the ranks and the humanists
The Peasants’ War (1524)


Luther’s German New Testament
Sermons and images
Luther’s stance: rulers appointed by God
Organizing the Church

State churches and new religious services
Germany and the Reformation:
Religion and Politics


The Lands and Goals of Charles V, Holy
Roman Emperor (1519 – 1556)
The French and the Papacy


Francis I of France (1515 – 1547)
Habsburg – Valois Wars (1521 – 1544)


The alliance of Pope Clement VII (1523 – 1534) and
Francis I
The sack of Rome (1527)
Germany and the Reformation:
Religion and Politics

The Ottoman Empire


The new threat to Europe
Suleiman the Magnificent (1520 – 1566)



The Battle of Mohács (1526)
Repulsed at Vienna (1529)
Politics in Germany


Germany’s fragmented political power
The Schmalkaldic League

Peace of Augsburg (1555)

Division of Christianity acknowledged
The Spread of the Protestant
Reformation

Lutheranism in Scandinavia


Monarchs and their state-run churches
The Zwinglian Reformation


The cantons of the Swiss Confederation
Reforms in Zürich


The movement of Ulrich Zwingli (1484 – 1531)
A Futile Search for Unity


Failed attempt to ally with German reformers
Swiss civil war
The Radical Reformation: The
Anabaptists

The Ideas of the Anabaptists





Church was a voluntary association of believers
Adult baptism
Return to the practices of early Christianity
Separation of church and state
Varieties of Anabaptism


Swiss Brethren
Anabaptists persecuted in Germany, Austrian
Habsburg lands, and Switzerland


The millenarian example at Münster (1532 – 1535)
Menno Simons (1496 – 1561) and the Mennonites

Separation from the world
The Reformation in England

The Marital Troubles of Henry VIII (1509 –
1547)

From Catherine of Aragon to Anne Boleyn

Policymakers Thomas Cromwell (1485 – 1540) and
Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury (1489 –
1556)


The New Order

Henry’s later marriages and policies


The Act of Supremacy (1534) and More’s fate
Edward VI (1547 – 1553)
Reaction under Mary (“Bloody Mary,” 1553 –
1558)

Goals: restore Catholicism, alliance with Spain
John Calvin (1509 – 1564)
and Calvinism

Calvin’s Background and Conversion


Flight from France and the Institutes of
Christian Religion (1536)
Calvin’s Ideas

Predestination and the sovereignty of God


Two Sacraments



The most activist form of Protestantism
Baptism
The Lord’s Supper
Calvin’s Geneva

The Consistory and moral discipline
The Social Impact of the Protestant
Reformation

The Family

Marriage and sex: new views


Women


Roles of wife and mother sanctified by Protestants
Education in the Reformation


The family at the center of human life
Protestant encouragement of schools
Religious Practices and Popular Culture


Altered religious ceremonies and images
Protestant criticism of customary
entertainment
The Catholic Reformation

Catholic Reformation or CounterReformation?


Reform from within and as a reaction
The Society of Jesus

Ignatius of Loyola (1491 – 1556)


The Spiritual Exercises
Jesuits recognized as a religious order (1540)


Absolute obedience to the papacy
Activities of the Jesuits



Combating Protestantism through education
Propagation of Catholic faith among non-Catholics
Fight Protestantism
A Revived Papacy

Pope Paul III (1534 – 1549)





Reform commission (1535 – 1537)
Recognized Jesuits
Summoning of the Council of Trent
Roman Inquisition (1542)
Pope Paul IV (1555 – 1559)

Index of Forbidden Books
The Council of Trent



Met intermittently from 1545 – 1563
Divisions between moderates and
conservatives
Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings



Scripture and tradition
Faith and good works
Sacraments
Politics and the Wars of Religion in
the Sixteenth Century

The French Wars of Religion (1562 – 1598)

The factions and issues

The status and power of the Huguenots





Conversion of 40 – 50 percent of French nobility
The ultra-Catholics
Constitutional crisis and revolt against the monarchy
The politiques
Course of the struggle


The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572)
Henry IV of Navarre (1589 – 1610)


Conversion to Catholicism
Edict of Nantes (1598)
Philip II (1556 – 1598) and Militant
Catholicism

The Goals of Philip II



Religious conformity
Extension of royal power
Spanish dominance in Europe

The Importance of Catholicism in Spain


The Holy League
The Battle of Lepanto (1571)
Revolt of the Netherlands

The Importance of the Netherlands




The prosperity of the provinces
Religious diversity: Calvinist inroads
Resentment against Philip’s attempt to exert
control
The Eruption of Violence

William of Nassau, Prince of Orange


The “Sea Beggars”
Division: United Provinces of the Netherlands
(1581); independence of the Dutch Republic (1648)
The England of Elizabeth
(1558 – 1603)

Religious Policy

A compromise settlement



Foreign Policy



The Act of Uniformity
Catholic and Puritan discontents
The chief concerns: caution, moderation, and
expediency
Conflict with Spain
The Spanish Armada (1588)

The failure of Spanish ambitions
Discussion Questions






How did the failings of the Catholic Church lead to calls for
reform?
What were Martin Luther’s complaints against the
Church?
How and why did Henry VIII break away from Rome?
What was John Calvin’s ideas of “predestination”?
How did the Catholic Church react to the Reformation?
Was it effective?
What troubles did Philip II of Spain have to confront
during his reign, and how successful was he in dealing
with them?