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Fitness Concepts FIVE FITNESS COMPONENTS: Cardiovascular Fitness- The ability of the heart and lungs to deliver oxygen and blood to the muscles during exercise. It is a measure of the heart’s stamina and is also referred to as aerobic exercise. Muscular Strength- The force a muscle or muscle group can exert when flexed. When you pick up an object, you use the bicep muscles to exert force against gravity. Muscular Endurance- It is measured by the length of time you can continually exert a muscular force, or by the number of contractions the muscle can withstand before becoming fatigued. Flexibility- The range of motion available in the joints and muscles. It gives you mobility and reduces the risk of injury. Body Composition- The ratio of lean body mass to body fat. Lean body mass refers to muscle, bone, nerve tissue, skin and organs. Lean tissue is metabolically active which means it needs more fuel to maintain its activity than fat. Because muscle weighs more than fat it is important to measure body composition rather than body weight when evaluating fitness. A desirable amount of body fat is between 8 and 15 percent for men and 15 to 22 percent for women. TARGET HEART RATE: Target Heart Rate is the zone that your heart rate should be in while exercising. If the heart rate is too high, you are putting too much of a strain on the heart muscle. If the heart rate is too low, you are not exerting enough intensity to strengthen the heart muscle. How to take your pulse: Two fingers on carotid artery on your neck. (do not use thumb) Count the number of beats in 1 minute usually by counting the pulse for 6 seconds and multiplying by 10. BENEFITS TO BEING HEALTHY AND FIT: Feel better about yourself Higher physical strength Faster metabolism Healthy heart Higher self-esteem More positive outlook Look better physically Regulate blood pressure Boost immune system BASIC SKILL MECHANICS: Athletic stance (knees bent, weight forward, and ready to move) is ready position in every sport. Always step in opposition when throwing a ball. (That is: step with the opposite foot than your throwing hand; if you are right handed, step with your left foot; if you are left handed, and step with your right foot.) For downward projection on the ball, contact the ball at the highest point above head and follow through. To catch a ball above the waist, point fingers up and “give” with the ball when receiving it into your hands. To catch a ball below the waist, turn hands over and point fingers to ground for a “basket catch”. Power comes from the legs. 3 AREAS OF SKILL DEVELOPMENT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION: Physical Skill Development: In each unit the basic skills were broken down into 3-4 cues students could work on to improve their own skill ability. Personal Skill Development: Throughout the year students have had the opportunity to work on their personal behavior in class. Some examples are how to act in a group or team setting, how to control behavior in order to be part of a group, and how to speak to other individuals. Social Skill Development: Students have also had the opportunity to develop skills to help them participate in a group. Teamwork, sportsmanship, cooperation, compassion, and integrity are all examples of how students learn to be a better team player. LIFELONG ACTIVITY: (Also known as being “active for life”.) Brainstorm what this means to you. It is the most important goal of the Physical Education department to encourage students to continue being active and healthy individuals into adulthood.