Cardiovascular System Unit Exam – Study Guide 1. Differentiate between the atria and the ventricles in terms of structure and function. 2. Trace the path of a drop of blood, starting at the right atrium and returning to the right atrium, through the pulmonary and systemic circuits of the cardiovascular system. Identify the chambers, valves, and vessels (except specific systemic blood vessels that are not directly associated with the heart), and indicate whether the blood is oxygenated or deoxygenated in each area. 3. Identify the eight major parts of the cardiac conduction system of the heart in their normal order. 4. Discuss the events that are taking place in the cardiac cycle during the left ventricular systole. Indicate whether the other heart chambers are in systole or diastole and whether they are filling or emptying of blood. If they are emptying, state where the blood is going. If they are filling with blood, state where the blood is coming from. Include an explanation of which valves are open and which valves are closed, in addition to whether the coronary system is filling or emptying of blood. 5. Identify all labelled parts of the heart below. 6. Describe each part of the EKG and what happens in each part of the heart. Draw and label a graph of a normal EKG to help answer this question. 7. Describe the different layers of the heart. 8. How does the heart muscle itself receive nourishment? 9. Describe how the heart’s valves function. 10. What is a diastole? 11. Differentiate between atrial systole and ventricular systole. 12. Differentiate between the five different types of blood vessels that exist in the body. 13. Why do veins have valves? 14. What are the three layers that will settle in a centrifuged tube of blood? 15. What three parts make up the “formed elements” of blood? 16. How are RBCs produced? 17. Differentiate between five types of WBCs. 18. What is blood plasma? 19. What is the function of platelets? 20. Describe the process of hemostasis & platelet plug formation. 21. What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic clotting mechanisms? 22. What are arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis? 23. What is hypertension and why is it bad? 24. Describe why it is important to be aware of blood types during blood transfusions and during pregnancies.