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Islamic and Jewish dietary laws compared - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Islamic and Jewish dietary laws compared
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(Redirected from Comparison of Dhabi•a Halal and kashrut)
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Part of a series on the
It has been suggested that this article or
section be merged into Ritual slaughter.
Islamic Jurisprudence
– a discipline of Islamic studies
The Islamic dietary laws (Dhabiha Halaal) and the
Jewish dietary laws (Kashrut) are both quite detailed,
and contain both points of similarity and discord.
They share a common root: a code of laws found in
Leviticus and recapitulated in the Quran.
1 Substance classification
❍ 1.1 Similarities
❍ 1.2 Differences
2 Slaughter
❍ 2.1 Similarities
❍ 2.2 Differences
3 Miscellaneous comparisons
❍ 3.1 Similarities
❍ 3.2 Differences
4 See also
5 Notes
❍ Islamic cleanliness
■ Ihram
■ Wudu
■ Ghusl
■ Tayammum
■ Miswak
■ Najis
■ Sexual Hygiene
❍ Dietary laws
■ Dhabi•a – Slaughter
■ Banned Slaughtering
of animals
Toilet Etiquette
Comparison to kashrut
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[edit] Substance classification•a_Halal_and_kashrut (1 of 7)2/15/2008 2:27:25 PM
Islamic and Jewish dietary laws compared - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[edit] Similarities
Blood and swine are prohibited in kashrut and dhabi•a halal. [1][2]
Many animals permitted in kashrut are also dhabi•a halal, such as bovines. [3][4]
Kashrut and dhabi•a halal guidelines both generally forbid the consumption of amphibian
citation needed
animals such as frogs. [5]
According to kashrut, almost all insects are not kosher. The few kosher insects are specific types
of locusts and grasshoppers which are seldom eaten today. [6] It is also a consensus among
Muslim scholars that most insects are forbidden except for locusts [7] [8].
Kashrut states that kosher aquatic animals must have scales and fins. The most prevalent
consensus among Muslim scholars is that in order to be dhabi•a halal, the fish must have scales
(nothing is said about fins).[9][10] However, according to Jewish oral law all fish that have
scales have fins, thus making all fish with scales kosher and thus the law being essentially the
same dhabi•a halal [11] [12] [13].
[edit] Differences
Part of a series on
For a substance to be dhabi•a halal, it must not contain
alcohol of any kind (except what occurs naturally, as in
the case of fruits). The strictness of this with regard to
the presence of extremely small quantities of alcohol in
cooked foods depends largely on individual
commitment. Except for grape wine and grape juice
(which must be manufactured under Jewish
supervision), Kashrut allows any sort of alcohol, as long
as it has no non-kosher ingredients (including any
unsupervised grape extracts).[14][15]
The list of animals forbidden by kashrut is more
restrictive, as kashrut requires that, to be kosher,
mammals must chew cud as well as have cloven hooves.
Dhabi•a halal does not require that an animal have
cloven hooves. Thus, various animals such as the camel
are permissible as per dhabi•a halal, but not according to
Unless prepared according to a special process, the
hindquarters of cows, sheep, goats, and other ruminants
are not generally considered kosher. Dhabi•a halal
contains no such restriction regarding the hindquarters.
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Islamic and Jewish dietary laws compared - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kashrut prohibits shellfish such as lobster, shrimp,
clams, and oysters[19], while there is debate among
Muslim scholars regarding the status of
citation needed
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[edit] Slaughter
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Dhabi•a is the method used to slaughter an animal as per
Islamic tradition. Shechita is the ritual slaughter of mammals
and birds according to Jewish law.
Religious roles
Rabbi · Rebbe · Hazzan
Kohen/Priest · Mashgiach · Gabbai · Maggid
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[edit] Similarities
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Tallit · Tefillin · Kipa · Sefer Torah
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4 Species · Kittel · Gartel · Yad
Both, shechita and dhabi•a, involve cutting across the
neck of the animal with a non-serrated blade in one
Jewish prayers and services
clean attempt in order to sever the main vessels.[20][21]
Shema · Amidah · Aleinu · Kol Nidre
Both require that the spinal cord be avoided during
Kaddish · Hallel · Ma Tovu · Havdalah
Judaism & other religions
Both require draining the blood of the animal.[24][25] Christianity · Islam · "Judeo-Christian" · Others
Abrahamic faiths · Judeo-Paganism · Pluralism
Any adult, sane Jew who knows the proper technique
Related topics
can perform shechita [Maimonides' Code, Laws of
Shechita 2:12]. Similarly, Dhabi•a, can be performed by Antisemitism · Criticism
Philo-Semitism · Yeshiva · Zionism
any "adult sane following the rules
prescribed by Shariah"[26]. Some Islamic authorities,
though, state that dhabi•a can also be performed by Jews and Christians [27]
[edit] Differences
The actual requirements of the slaughter in terms of which vessels must be severed and which
must be kept intact are different. Shechita requires that the "trachea, (esophagus), the carotid
arteries and jugular veins" be severed[28]. There is no conclusive answer as to exactly which
vessels are required to be severed as per dhabi•a but according to the Islamic rules, the two big
veins on both sides of the neck should be severed, but it is agreed that "most of the four veins"
must be severed[29].
Today, as a matter of practicality, Shechita is only performed by a licensed, well-trained
slaughterman known as a shochet[30]. (While no rule specifies the gender of a shochet, they
traditionally have been male) . While dhabi•a slaughter is generally performed by an
experienced individual, it is still common in certain parts of the world for families to butcher
their own meats.•a_Halal_and_kashrut (3 of 7)2/15/2008 2:27:25 PM
Islamic and Jewish dietary laws compared - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Theoretically, in the unlikely event that a minor or insane Jew slaughters an animal, the Shechita
would be considered valid after-the-fact if the proper technique was used [Maimonides 2:12 and
commentaries ad loc]. The strictness of Dhabi•a's requirement regarding an "adult, sane"
slaughterer is under debate in an identical situation, because there is no primary Islamic source
which addresses this specific scenario [31]. However, this is unlikely to occur, and so does not
constitute a major difference.
Dhabiha requires that God's (see Islamic Concept of God) name be pronounced before each
slaughter [32]. Some Muslims have accorded meat to be halal but not necessarily dhabiha i.e
Kosher meat is considered halal by Muslims and meat slaughtered by Christians. This is
according to the Hadith: "it is narrated by Al Bukhari from Aisha the Prophet Muhammad's wife,
that some people came to him and said, Oh God's Prophet, some people bring us meat and we do
not know if they pronounced the name of God on it or not, and he said pronounce you the name
of God and eat." This hadith is taken to give permission to eat non-dhabiha meat but with the
condition to say God's name before eating. Dhabiha meat by definition is meat that is slaughtered
in the shariah manner and the name of God is said before the slaughter. In Shechita, a blessing to
God is recited before beginning an uninterrupted period of slaughtering; as long as the Shochet
does not have a lengthy pause, interrupt, or otherwise lose concentration, this blessing covers all
the animals slaughtered that period. This blessing follows the standard form for a blessing before
most Jewish rituals ("Blesséd are you God ... who commanded us regarding [such-and-such]," in
this case, Shechita). The general rule in Judaism is that for rituals which have an associated
blessing, if one omitted the blessing, the ritual is still valid [see Maimonides Laws of Blessings
11:5]; as such, even if the shochet failed to recite the blessing before Shechita, the slaughter is
still valid and the meat is kosher. [Maimonides Laws of Slaughter 1:2 and commentaries ad loc]
[edit] Miscellaneous comparisons
[edit] Similarities
After slaughter, both require that the animal be examined to ensure that it is fit for consumption.
Dhabi•a guidelines generally say that the carcass should be inspected [33], while kashrut says
that the animal's internal organs must be examined "to make certain the animal was not
Both sets of religious rules are subject to arguments among different authorities with regional and
sect-related differences in permissible foodstuffs.
Strictly observant followers of either religion will not eat in restaurants not certified to follow its
[edit] Differences
During Passover, there is an additional set of restrictions, requiring that no chametz (leavened•a_Halal_and_kashrut (4 of 7)2/15/2008 2:27:25 PM
Islamic and Jewish dietary laws compared - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
bread) be eaten. This has no parallel in the laws of dhabi•a halal.[35]
Kashrut prohibits mixing meat and dairy, which may not be consumed or prepared together.
Dhabi•a halal has no such rules. [36]
In Judaism, the permissibility of food accompanies a vast corpus of secondary factors. For
instance, vessels and implements used to cook food must also be kept separate for dairy products
and meat products. If a vessel or implement used to cook dairy is then used to cook meat, in
addition to the thus contaminated food becoming non-kosher (according to various situationspecific rules), the vessel or implement itself can no longer be used for the preparation or
consumption of a kosher meal. Depending on the material properties of the item, it may be
rendered permissible ("kashered") by certain procedures or it may be irretrievably contaminated.
In general, the same policy extends to any apparatus used in the preparation of foods, such as an
ovens or stovetop. Laws are somewhat more lenient for modern cooking apparatuses like
microwaves, although this depends greatly on tradition (minhag) or individuals' own stringent
practices (chumrot). As a result of these factors, many Conservative and Orthodox Jews cannot
eat dishes prepared at any restaurant that is not specifically kosher, even if the actual dish ordered
uses only kosher ingredients. This level of stringency does not have an analog in Dhabiha Halal.
[edit] See also
Bans on ritual slaughter
[edit] Notes
1. ^ Shulchan Aruch Yoreh Deah 1:1 gloss
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