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Endocrine System
Period 1
By: Alex, Garrett, Audrey, and Tory
Functions of the Endocrine System
Controls the processes involved in movement and psychological equilibrium
Includes all tissues or glands that secrete hormones into the blood
The secretion of most of the hormones is regulated by a negative feedback system
The number of receptors for a specific hormone can be altered to meet the body’s demands
Definition: A chemical substance produced in the
body that controls and regulates the activity of
certain cells or organs.
Many hormones are secreted by special
glands, such as thyroid hormone produced
by the thyroid gland.
Hormones are essential for every activity of
life, including the processes of digestion,
metabolism, growth, reproduction, and
mood control.
Roles of Insulin and Glucagon
Insulin is a vital hormone produced by cells in
your pancreas. Insulin works to move glucose
from the blood and into cells for energy or
storage for later energy.
Like insulin, glucagon is a protein hormone
produced in the pancreas. It is a counterbalance
to insulin.
When insulin is produced, glucagon is
suppressed. Insulin stimulates the cells
throughout your body to take in glucose from
your bloodstream. Your cells then use glucose as
Glucagon signals the liver and muscles to break
down glycogen into glucose and release glucose
back into your bloodstream. This keeps your
blood sugar levels from dipping too low.
How this system helps to maintain homeostasis in the
Insulin is produced by the pancreas in response
to high blood sugar, the amount of insulin added
into the blood increases as the glucose in the
blood rises. In response to insulin, cells (muscle,
red blood cells, and fat cells) take glucose in from
the blood, which lowers the high blood glucose
levels back to normal.
Glucagon is added by the pancreas when the
amount of glucose in blood is low. The function
of glucagon is to cause the liver to release
stored glucose from its cells into the blood.
Which causes the low blood glucose levels to
return to normal.
In this diagram, you will comprehend how glucagon and
insulin act as a mediator
How the system works with other systems
The Endocrine System works with the
digestive system through the production of
the hormone insulin in the pancreas. When
carbohydrates are digested, through the
digestive system, they are transformed
into sugars. The pancreas, through the
endocrine system, produces the insulin to
regulate the speed of how fast of the
sugars are broken down. Therefore, insulin
regulates the amount of sugar in the blood.
Endocrine Diseases/ Disorders
Diseases occur when a gland produces too much
or too little of the endocrine hormone, called a
hormone imbalance
Diseases occur due to the development of lesions
(such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine
system, which may or may not affect hormone
Main organs
Hypothalamus: This part of the brain is important in regulating metabolism.
Pituitary Gland: Produces hormones that control many functions
Thyroid Gland: Produces thyroid hormones that regulate the body’s metabolism
Adrenals: Inner part produces, hormones called catecholamines which help the body
cope with physical and emotional stress
Pineal Body: Secretes a hormone called melatonin which help regulate the sleep
Reproductive Glands: These glands are the main source of sex hormones