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Civilization in the Yellow River Valley
Geographic considerations
Ancient China was ___________________
i. _______________ to East
ii. Gobi Desert to ______________________
iii. Mountains to _________________
iv. ______________________ to South
b. Huang-He (Yellow) & Yangtze Rivers formed . . .
c. ___________________ _______________________was always a problem
Shang Dynasty (1800 to 1027 BC)
a. First historical dynasty confirmed in ________________ ________________
b. Info about dynasty comes from different sources =>
c. Form of Government
i. Military was maintained to fight against . . .
ii. King ruled rural land while nobles ruled semi-independent city states =>
d. Society
i. Very hierarchal & ________________________
ii. Shang appear to have been herders transitioning …
iii. ________________ dominated society
iv. Group was more important than _____________________________
1. Family was …
2. ___________________ _____________________ was common
v. Isolation meant no ________________; thus, Chinese were …
e. Technology
i. Metallurgy
1. Bronze metallurgy was ____________________________
2. Iron casting introduced late in kingdom; better than anything …
3. Military used _________________
ii. Writing system
1. ______________________ language
2. Over 10,000 characters =>
3. Modern Chinese written language . . .
4. Language unified a large, diverse culture =>
Zhou Dynasty (1027 to 256 BC)
a. Nomadic people who . . .
b. Absorbed Shang _______________
c. Introduced “Mandate of Heaven” concept
i. Belief that rulers were the “Son of Heaven” and …
ii. Dethronement of ruler proved that …
iii. When bad things happened in society, it meant that …
iv. People were then justified to _______________ and __________________ the king
v. Theory explained and justified the demise of the Shang dynasty and _________________ the
present and future rulers
d. Government
i. Transitioning from city states of Shang to . . .
ii. Central government of Zhou Dynasty exercised greater …
e. Technology
i. Built many _________________ and canals
ii. Coined money helped spur ________________ (why?) =>
iii. Iron casting
1. Iron weapons were a huge advance over …
2. Took Europe ______________ years to catch up to Zhou
Fall of Zhou Dynasty / “Time of Warring States” (481 to 256 BC)
a. Nomads from North, West . . .
b. Nobles asserted their local power =>
c. Period characterized by general collapse of . . .
d. During this time Sun Tzu wrote “_________________________________”
e. Also during this time, _________________, __________________ emerged as philosophical
schools of thought
The Mandate of Heaven’s Dynastic Cycle