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Components of an operating system
An operating system is a software program that provides an interface between
the user and the computer and manages thousands of applications. Most
computer systems are sold with an operating system installed. Computers that
are designed for individual users are called Personal Computers (PCs). PC
operating systems are designed to control the operations of programs such as
Web browsers, word processors, and e-mail programs
Computers that are capable of handling concurrent users and multiple jobs are
called network servers or servers, as shown in Figure . Servers use operating
systems called Network Operating Systems (NOS). A fast computer with a
NOS installed may manage operations for a large company or a large Internet
site, which involves keeping track of many users and many programs. A server
environment is shown in Figure .
There are three basic elements that make up the major design components of
any operating system. These components are described as modular because
each has a distinct function and can be developed separately:
User interface – A user interacts with the operating system through the
user interface. The user interface is the part of the operating system that
can be used to issue commands by either typing them at a command
prompt or pointing and clicking the mouse on a graphical user interface
Kernel – This is the core of the operating system. The kernel is
responsible for loading and operating programs or processes and
managing input and output.
File management system – The file management system is what the
operating system uses to organize and manage files. A file is a collection
of data. Virtually all of the information that a computer stores is in the
form of a file. There are many types of files, including program files, data
files, and text files. The way an operating system organizes information
into files is called the file system. Most operating systems use a
hierarchical file system, which organizes files into directories under a
tree structure. The beginning of the directory system is called the root
Reading the text:
1. Scan the text for difficult words and translate them.
2. What the text is about? Write down the subject\s of this text:
___________________, ___________________, ___________________,
___________________, ___________________, ___________________.
3. Write the key sentence for each paragraph:
a. ______________________________________________
b. ______________________________________________
c. ______________________________________________
Understanding the text:
1. Write down two functions of the operating system.
2. What is the major difference between OS and NOS?
3. What do you think is the most important component of the operating system?
Good Luck