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Transcript
Conditional Probability and Independence
Learning Targets
I can use the multiplication rule for independent
events to compute probabilities.
2. I can compute conditional probabilities.
1.
Conditional Probability
The probability that one event happens given that
another event is already known to have happened
is called a conditional probability. Suppose we
know that event A has happened. Then the
probability that event B happens given that event
A has happened is denoted by P(B A).
Independent Events
Two events A and B are independent if the
occurrence of one event has no effect on the chance
that the other event will happen. In other words
events a and B are independent if P(A | B) = P(A)
and P(B | A) = P(B).
Dependent Events
Multiplication rule for independent events.
If A and B are independent events, then the
probability that A and B both occur is
General Multiplication Rule
Conditional Probability Formula
To find the conditional probability P(B A), use the formula
First Trimester Screen
The First Trimester Screen is a noninvasive test given during the first
trimester of pregnancy to determine if there are specific chromosomal
abnormalities in the fetus. According to a study published in the New
England Journal of Medicine in November 2005, approximately 5% of
normal pregnancies will receive a positive result. Among 100 women
with normal pregnancies, what is the probability that there will be at
least 1 false positive?