Reducing belief simpliciter to degrees of belief

... both sides are constantly aiming at achieving a joint state that makes it look as if one’s qualitative beliefs were determined completely by one’s quantitative beliefs if supplied by some contextual parameters again. This might be to the beneﬁt of the agent for otherwise his two belief systems might ...

... both sides are constantly aiming at achieving a joint state that makes it look as if one’s qualitative beliefs were determined completely by one’s quantitative beliefs if supplied by some contextual parameters again. This might be to the beneﬁt of the agent for otherwise his two belief systems might ...

An Analysis of Random-Walk Cuckoo Hashing

... the random-walk insertion method for cuckoo hashing. There is a clear intuition for how this random walk on the buckets should perform. If a fraction f of the items are adjacent to at least one empty bucket in the corresponding graph, then we might expect that each time we place one item and conside ...

... the random-walk insertion method for cuckoo hashing. There is a clear intuition for how this random walk on the buckets should perform. If a fraction f of the items are adjacent to at least one empty bucket in the corresponding graph, then we might expect that each time we place one item and conside ...

Notes on the Poisson point process

... the Poisson distribution, but Poisson, however, did not study the process, which independently arose in several different settings [18][67][26]. The process is defined with a single object, which, depending on the context, may be a constant, an integrable function or, in more general settings, a Rad ...

... the Poisson distribution, but Poisson, however, did not study the process, which independently arose in several different settings [18][67][26]. The process is defined with a single object, which, depending on the context, may be a constant, an integrable function or, in more general settings, a Rad ...

# Randomness

Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps has no order and does not follow an intelligible pattern or combination. Individual random events are by definition unpredictable, but in many cases the frequency of different outcomes over a large number of events (or ""trials"") is predictable. For example, when throwing two dice, the outcome of any particular roll is unpredictable, but a sum of 7 will occur twice as often as 4. In this view, randomness is a measure of uncertainty of an outcome, rather than haphazardness, and applies to concepts of chance, probability, and information entropy.The fields of mathematics, probability, and statistics use formal definitions of randomness. In statistics, a random variable is an assignment of a numerical value to each possible outcome of an event space. This association facilitates the identification and the calculation of probabilities of the events. Random variables can appear in random sequences. A random process is a sequence of random variables whose outcomes do not follow a deterministic pattern, but follow an evolution described by probability distributions. These and other constructs are extremely useful in probability theory and the various applications of randomness.Randomness is most often used in statistics to signify well-defined statistical properties. Monte Carlo methods, which rely on random input (such as from random number generators or pseudorandom number generators), are important techniques in science, as, for instance, in computational science. By analogy, quasi-Monte Carlo methods use quasirandom number generators.Random selection is a method of selecting items (often called units) from a population where the probability of choosing a specific item is the proportion of those items in the population. For example, with a bowl containing just 10 red marbles and 90 blue marbles, a random selection mechanism would choose a red marble with probability 1/10. Note that a random selection mechanism that selected 10 marbles from this bowl would not necessarily result in 1 red and 9 blue. In situations where a population consists of items that are distinguishable, a random selection mechanism requires equal probabilities for any item to be chosen. That is, if the selection process is such that each member of a population, of say research subjects, has the same probability of being chosen then we can say the selection process is random.