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Transcript
CHAPTER 12:
General Rules of Probability
The Basic Practice of Statistics
6th Edition
Moore / Notz / Fligner
Lecture PowerPoint Slides
Chapter 12 Concepts
2

Independence and the Multiplication Rule

The General Addition Rule

Conditional Probability

The General Multiplication Rule

Tree Diagrams
Chapter 12 Objectives
3







Define independent events
Determine whether two events are independent
Apply the general addition rule
Define conditional probability
Compute conditional probabilities
Apply the general multiplication rule
Describe chance behavior with a tree diagram
Probability Rules
4
Everything in this chapter follows from the four rules we
learned in Chapter 10:
Rule 1. The probability P(A) of any event A satisfies 0 ≤ P(A) ≤ 1.
Rule 2. If S is the sample space in a probability model, then P(S) = 1.
Rule 3. If A and B are disjoint, P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B).
This is the addition rule for disjoint events.
Rule 4. For any event A, P(A does not occur) = 1 – P(A).
Venn Diagrams
5
Sometimes it is helpful to draw a picture to display relations among several
events. A picture that shows the sample space S as a rectangular area and
events as areas within S is called a Venn diagram.
Two disjoint events:
Two events that are not disjoint, and
the event {A and B} consisting of
the outcomes they have in common:
Multiplication Rule for
Independent Events
6
If two events A and B do not influence each other, and if knowledge about
one does not change the probability of the other, the events are said to
be independent of each other.
Multiplication Rule for Independent Events
Two events A and B are independent if knowing that one occurs does
not change the probability that the other occurs. If A and B are
independent:
P(A and B) = P(A)  P(B)
Example
The chance of rain for Tuesday is 40%. The chance of
rain for Wednesday is 10%. What is the
probability it will rain on both days?
Example
Calculate the probability of drawing 2 cards from a
standard deck of cards (with replacement) and
them both being…
1)
Red
2)
Aces
3)
Red Aces
4)
Red Value of 10
The General Addition Rule
9
We know if A and B are disjoint events,
P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)
Addition Rule for Any Two Events
For any two events A and B:
P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B)
Example
The chance of precipitation for Tuesday is 40%. The
chance of precipitation for Wednesday is 10%.
Calculate the probability that is snows on either
Tuesday or Wednesday (but not both days).
Example
To make a particular product, both parts A and B
need to be functional. If the probability that any
random part A is defective is 0.0023 and the
probability that any random part B is defective is
0.0064, what is the probability that a final product,
selected at random, will be functional?
Conditional Probability
12
The probability we assign to an event can change if we know that some other
event has occurred. This idea is the key to many applications of probability.
When we are trying to find the probability that one event will happen under the
condition that some other event is already known to have occurred, we are trying
to determine a conditional probability.
The probability that one event happens given that another event is
already known to have happened is called a conditional probability.
When P(A) > 0, the probability that event B happens given that event A
has happened is found by:
P(B | A) =
P(A and B)
P(A)
The General Multiplication Rule
13
The definition of conditional probability reminds us that in principle all
probabilities, including conditional probabilities, can be found from the
assignment of probabilities to events that describe a random phenomenon.
The definition of conditional probability then turns into a rule for finding the
probability that both of two events occur.
The probability that events A and B both occur can be found using the
general multiplication rule
P(A and B) = P(A) • P(B | A)
where P(B | A) is the conditional probability that event B occurs given
that event A has already occurred.
Note: Two events A and B that both have positive probability are independent
if:
P(B|A) = P(B)
Example
Calculate the probability of drawing 2 cards from a
standard deck of cards and them both being…
1)
Red
2)
Aces
3)
Red Aces
4)
Red Value of 10
Tree Diagrams
15
We learned how to describe the sample space S of a chance process in
Chapter 10. Another way to model chance behavior that involves a
sequence of outcomes is to construct a tree diagram.
Consider flipping a
coin twice.
What is the probability
of getting two heads?
Sample Space:
HH HT TH TT
So, P(two heads) = P(HH) = 1/4
Example
16
The Pew Internet and American Life Project finds that 93% of teenagers (ages
12 to 17) use the Internet, and that 55% of online teens have posted a profile
on a social-networking site.
What percent of teens are online and have posted a profile?
P(online) = 0.93
P(profile | online) = 0.55
P(online and have profile) = P(online)× P(profile | online)
= (0.93)(0.55)
= 0.5115
51.15% of teens are online and have
posted a profile.
Chapter 12 Objectives Review
17







Define independent events
Determine whether two events are independent
Apply the general addition rule
Define conditional probability
Compute conditional probabilities
Apply the general multiplication rule
Describe chance behavior with a tree diagram
Problem 12.4
Problem 12.9
Problem 12.11
Problem 12.27
Problem 12.29
Problem 12.39
Problem 12.40
Problem 12.43