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Name: _______________________________
Astronomy: The Earth’s Role in (Outer) Space
1. Draw the hierarchy of the universe universe-made up of billions of galaxies – made up of billions of stars – some
of those stars have planetary systems (like our Sun, planets orbit around the Sun)
2. Describe three ways that the Sun makes life possible on Earth.
a. light
b. heat
c. food (plants make food using the Sun’s energy, photosynthesis)
3. The Earth is not stationary (it does not “stand still” in space. Explain the four major motions of Earth in space).
a. Rotation – Earth rotates around its own axis at an angle of 23.5 degrees (basketball spins on its axis)
b. Revolution – Earth (and all planets) make one complete “lap” around the Sun
c. Precession – the Earth’s axis points to a different point in the night sky every 13,000 years
d. Nutation – Earth wobbles around its precessional axis (caused by tides, which are caused by moon’s pull
of gravity on Earth)
Multiple-Choice Review:
1. True or False: All of the planets, including Earth, spin in the same direction and go around the Sun in the same
direction due to the Sun’s gravity. (1.1.1-1)
Use this word bank for questions 2,3, and 4.
Moons Stars
Elliptical Time
North Carolina
2. The hierarchy of organization in the universe is that the universe is made up of ____galaxies_____________, which are
made up of _____stars__________ and some of these have _________planetary systems________. (1.1.1-2)
Use the following diagram to help you answer questions 3 and 4 about Kepler’s Laws of planetary motion.
2. Kepler’s First Law states that all planets and orbiting objects follow a/an __elliptical_______________ orbit path.
3. Kepler’s Second Law states that a line that connects a planet to the sun sweeps out equal ____areas______ in equal
____time________. (1.1.1-3)
4. The Big Bang Theory states that_____
a. The universe has always been the same but is expanding outward in all directions
b. The universe will collapse back onto itself into a single point
c. The universe began as a single point and expanded outward in all directions with continued expansion today
d. The world was created in a huge explosion similar to a bomb
5. The main piece of evidence is for an expanding universe is the ____________. (1.1.1-4)
a. One Shift in light coming from other galaxies
b. Two Shift in light coming from other galaxies
c. Red Shift in light coming from other galaxies
d. Blue Shift in light coming from other galaxies
Name: _______________________________
6. The tilt of Earth’s axis is_____ (1.1.1-4)
a. 32.5 degrees
b. 23.5 degrees
c. 52.5 degrees
d. There is no tilt of Earth’s axis
7. In the diagram below, circle the position in which the northern hemisphere is experiencing summer. (1.1.2-1)
8. Fusion is so important for life on Earth
because__________. (1.1.3-1)
a. It is how we get nuclear energy from power plants
b. It happens in volcanoes creating light and heat for life on Earth
c. It happens in stars like the Sun sending radiant energy to support life on Earth
d. Fission is actually the important one.
9. Define precession. What does precession mean for our north star? A diagram can be used to support your explanation.
-precession: The Earth’s rotation is not fixed in space! The Earth moves like a toy top that wobbles a bit as it spins. This
motion causes the North Star to change about every 13,000 years or so.
10. The wobbling of Earth’s tilted rotational axis between 23 degrees and 24 degrees is called __________________.
(1.1.1-6) [nutation]
11. Earth’s magnetic field protects us from ______________. (1.1.4-4)
a. Spinning or rotating too fast
c. Solar energy
b. Moon winds
d. Solar winds
12. Create a flow chart of energy through space starting with fusion in the Sun and ending with food for humans. (1.1.3-3)
Nuclear fusion  Sun’s radiant energy (light and heat)  plants absorb light plants make food via photosynthesis 
animals and humans eat those plants
13. Even though the Sun emits many kinds of energy, why do we not feel or experience all the different kinds of energy it
emits? (1.1.3-2)
a. The atmosphere absorbs most of it, including much of the dangerous ones.
b. They are all different names of the same thing.
c. The magnetic field protects us.
d. Photosynthesis captures it all.
Lithosphere: The Rock Cycle
1. Draw the rock cycle below. Include the following forces that transform rock from one form to another: extreme
heat, pressure, compaction, cementation, gravity, etc. [check]
2. Define the lithosphere (what two layers comprise or make up the lithosphere?): layer of Earth made up of the
crust and upper mantle
Name: _______________________________
3. Label the four layers of the earth [in order top to bottom: crust, upper and lower mantle, outer core, inner core]
4. In the table below, fill in each layer of the earth and write one characteristic of each (besides where it is located).
Name of Layer
One characteristic (fact)
5-70 km thick (thinnest layer; varies in thickness)
2890 km thick; magnesium and iron
Outer Core
2260 km thick; iron and nickel
Inner Core
1220 km thick; SOLID iron (and some nickel)
*heat/temperature and pressure increase as you move down from crust to core*
5. Create an analogy to describe the Earth and its layers.
For example:
The earth is like an apple
The crust is like the skin because it is thin and on the outside
The mantle is like the flesh because it is the largest layer and is a soft solid
The outer core is like the outside of the seeds because it is towards the inside
The inner core is like the inside of the seeds because it is the solid, innermost part
Now, create your own!
The earth is like a _______________________
The crust is like the ____________________ because ________________________________________
The mantle is like the ___________________ because _______________________________________
The outer core is like the ________________ because ________________________________________
The inner core is like the ________________ because ________________________________________
6. Use the words PANGAEA, CONTINENTAL DRIFT, and MOVEMENT to describe the theory of continental
drift (textbook):
Alfred Wegner’s theory that the continents were once joined together in one giant landmass (named Pangaea).
The theory states that 200 million years ago, the continents started breaking apart and drifted to their current
7. Why didn’t people believe Alfred Wegener when he proposed continental drift (the answer is NOT that he did not
have enough evidence) (textbook): Wegener said that fossils on coasts of South America and Africa (between
them the Southern Atlantic Ocean) were similar; however, people argued that erosion continually changes
Name: _______________________________
coastlines over time. Scientists rejected this theory because Wegener could not provide a FORCE that would
cause those continents to move across the globe.
8. Draw a picture illustrating how convection currents work in the mantle.
Heat increases as you travel down from the crust to the core. Hotter magma at the base of the mantle is less dense and
rises, while cooler denser magma nearer to the crust sinks back down, and the cycle continues.
9. How do convection currents contribute to plate movement?
The upper mantle and crust form the lithosphere, which is divided into 7 large plates. Plates move because of
convection currents in the mantle.
10. Explain plate tectonics theory. What is the main difference between continental drift and plate tectonics theory?
The plate tectonics theory states that the plates interact in various ways producing earthquakes, mountains, volcanoes, and
the like. The plates move very slowly at a rate of about 5cm per year! The main difference between the theories: (1) none
of the plates is defined as a continent (2) the plates move along with the ocean floor (not through it as in Wegner’s theory
of continental drift).
11. Complete the following table: NOTE: The total surface area of the Earth’s plates does not change, but each may
grow/shrink in area
Boundary Type
How do the plates move?
What does it cause?
Volcanoes, some earthquakes
(subduction zone: when one
oceanic plate is forced beneath
a 2nd plate, destructive)
Ocean-continent: volcanic
island; Ocean-ocean: volcano;
Continent-continent: mountain
(neither plate sinks/can be
Seafloor spreading (Upwelling
from the mantle to create new
seafloor/ new oceanic crust)
Name: _______________________________
Transform fault
Side-by-side (two plates
grind past each other
without destroying the
Ex) San Andreas fault
Multiple-Choice Review:
1. Which of the following is not a major type of rock. (2.1.1-1)
a. Metamorphic
c. Igneous
b. Mesozoic
d. Sedimentary
2. ______ Deposition (2.1.1-1) A
a. The layering of rocks or sediment
______ Bedding (2.1.1-1) C
______ Foliation (2.1.1-1) B
b. An even amount of pressure causing a layered or banded appearance.
c. The piling of eroded sediments
3. Lava is located ____________ the Earth while magma is located _____________ the Earth. (2.1.1(lava – on top of Earth’s surface/exit the volcano while magma is underneath Earth’s surface)
4. True or False: Volcanic Ash contains gases and affects atmospheric composition with pollutants such as dust,
rock particles, and ash (2.1.1-4)
5. Waves that push and pull (like a slinky) are called _____________ waves and the waves that move up and down
are called ___________ waves. (2.1.1-5)
S and P
P and S
Body waves and surface waves
Surface waves and body waves
6. Which theory explains why the earth vibrates in an earthquake?
Elastic rebound theory
Strike slip theory
Seismatic theory
Theory of relativity
7. Which of the following is not a fault type involved in earthquakes? (2.1.1-5)
Normal fault
Strike slip fault
Hanging wall fault
Reverse fault
8. In the case of an earthquake, in the diagram below A represents the __epicenter________________ and B
represents the ________focus____________. (2.1.1-5)
(deleted diagram)
9. The two main causes of sea level rise are_________ and ________. Pick two! (2.1.1-7)
a. Warmer water expanding
c. It is raining too much
b. People drinking too much water
d. Land based ice is melting
10. Which of the following does NOT affect the rate of weathering. (2.1.3-2)
a. Topography
c. Rock composition
b. Climate
d. How much sun there is
Name: _______________________________
11. On the map below, predict where earthquakes, volcanoes, and mid-ocean ridges will be. Also indicate where at
least one of each of the three types of plate boundaries is located. (2.1.2-1)
Atmosphere: Layers of the Atmosphere
1. List the layers of the atmosphere, in order and include the composition of each. (ex) The troposphere is the layer
of the atmosphere closest to Earth’s surface where weather occurs.
Composition (what it’s
made of)
Mostly water vapor,
some ozone (nitrogen,
oxygen); weather
Mostly ozone (absorbs
radiation from the sun)
0-20km (Earth’s
Decrease in
temperature with
height (mountain)
Increases in temp
with altitude
Decreases in temp
with altitude
Increases in temp
with altitude
Very thin, made of some
nitrogen and oxygen
How Air Masses Interact
Warm air mass overtakes cold
air mass
Weather (Type of Way)
Warm, clear skies
Warm front
Key Players (Air Masses)
Warm and cold air mass
Warm and cold air mass
Warm air mass rises and cold
air moves in
Cold, precipitation (rain)
Cold front
Stationary front
Warm and cold air mass
Warm and cold air mass
equalize in pressure and
Cold air mass overtakes warm
air mass and keeps moving
until it meets another cold air
Clear skies, possible
Occluded front
Cold front chasing other
Cold, storm/rainy, snow
Name: _______________________________
3. Wind Systems:
a. What types of winds are responsible for our weather here in North Carolina? Westerlies
b. In the tropics/Equator? The trade winds (think ships sailing on the seas)
c. At the Poles? Polar Easterlies
Multiple-Choice Review:
1. As you move away from the earth (altitude is increasing) the temperature of in the troposphere
___________________. Decreases (think about climbing up a mountain)
2. Denver, CO is 5100 ft. above sea level while Roanoke Rapids is 154 ft. above sea level. Which would you expect
to have higher average temperature? Roanoke Rapids
3. What is the most abundant (highest percentage) gas in the atmosphere? (2.5.1-1)
a. Argon
c. Water vapor
b. Nitrogen
d. Oxygen
4. Oxygen makes up about ______ percent of the atmosphere. (2.5.1-1)
a. 79
c. 99
b. 1
d. 20
5. Water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), Argon, and other gases make up _______ percent of the atmosphere. (2.5.1-1)
a. 79
c. 99
b. 1
d. 20
6. Water can be found in three states in the atmosphere: ______________, _____________, and _____________.
(2.5.4-3) (solid, liquid, gas)
7. When water changes states in the atmosphere it either ______________ or _____________ heat. (2.5.4-3)
(gains or loses)
8. True or False: The motion of air over water and land redistributing heat creates weather in an attempt to find a
heat balance in the atmosphere.
9. What are the two solid particles in the atmosphere? Circle two. (2.5.4-3)
a. Dust
c. Salt
b. CO2
d. Argon
10. The ozone layer protects living things on Earth from:
a. Visible light
c. UV radiation
b. Infrared radiation
d. carbon dioxide
11. The ozone layer is in the _____________.
a. Thermosphere
b. Stratosphere
c. Mesosphere
d. Troposphere
12. Humans produce harmful chemicals that harm the environment, such as CFCs that deteriorate the ozone layer.
Describe what could happen if we continue to emit CFCs and how that could affect human life. (2.5.5-2)
CFCs have been banned since 1996 because they can destroy the ozone layer (which protects us from harmful UV
radiation). [made of carbon, hydrogen, fluorine, chlorine]
13. Meteorology is the study of__________
a. Meteors
c. Space and planets
b. Weather and the atmosphere
d. alternative energy sources
Name: _______________________________
14. Below, please draw arrows and label the Trade Winds, Polar Easterlies, and Prevailing Westerlies on the globe.
Locations don’t have to be exact. Make sure the order is right and the directions are right.
15. Because of the coriolis effect, _____________
a. The air in the northern hemisphere is deflected to the right and the air in the southern hemisphere is deflected to
the left.
b. The air in the northern hemisphere is deflected to the left and the air in the southern hemisphere is deflected to the
c. The atmosphere spins at the same rate as the surface of the earth
d. The equator spins the fastest
*Rather than moving directly from areas of HIGH to LOW pressure, winds move to the right in the Northern Hemisphere,
to the left in the Southern Hemisphere due to the Coriolis effect/rotation of Earth on its axis.*
16. Below is a May 2013 weather map. Identify the fronts on the map and predict the weather in Texas, Kansas, and
Florida. (2.5.4-1, 2.5.4-2). TX: cold front, low pressure system moving in: cold weather, precipitation; KS: warm front:
clear skies as the rain moves out; FL: very little weather action
17. High-pressure systems are typically associated with __________________ weather and low-pressure systems are
associated with ________________ weather. (fair weather; lousy/stormy weather)
18. High pressure air systems are more dense so they _____________ while low pressure systems are less dense and
______________. (2.5.3-1) (sink, rise)
19. Air masses move from ________ pressure to ________ pressure, creating wind. (2.5.3-1) (high to low)
Name: _______________________________
20. What is the ultimate source of all energy in the atmosphere?
a. Heat
c. The sun
b. The moon
d. Temperature
Hydrosphere: The Water Cycle
1. Label the following steps of the water cycle on the diagram below (runoff, evaporation, condensation,
precipitation, transpiration) – each can be used more than once.
2. What is the difference between saltwater and freshwater?
Salt content
3. What are 2 major sources of freshwater?
Glaciers, rivers, lakes, streams, etc.
4. Define the following:
 Evaporation – water heats up and changes state from liquid to gas (boiling pot of water)
 Condensation – water cools down and changes state from gas back to liquid (morning dew)
 Transpiration – evaporation off of a plant/leaf
 Precipitation – water in vapor form (gas) in clouds gets heavy, falls back to Earth as liquid (rain, snow,
sleet, hail)
 Runoff – water that hits the Earth’s surface and is not absorbed into the top layer of soil (flows down
slopes and into streams/rivers/lakes)
 Infiltration – water that hits the Earth’s surface and IS absorbed into the top layer of soil
5. Does the amount of water on Earth ever change? Why or why not?
NO; it simply changes form/state from solid-liquid-gas in a continuous cycle.
6. Classify each of the following as either evaporation (E), condensation (C), precipitation (P), infiltration (I),
transpiration (T), runoff (R) (each may be used more than once)
E______ water changing from liquid to gas
C_____ water changing from gas to liquid
C______ formation of clouds
T______ evaporation from plants
Name: _______________________________
I______ when precipitation seeps into the ground through cracks
R______ carries non-point source pollution
E______ cause of steam from boiling water
P______ rain, snow, sleet, hail
C______ cause of water droplets on the outside of a cold water bottle
R______ water flowing down slopes, leads to formation of streams
7. What are 3 things water can do when it reaches Earth’s surface?
Runoff into streams, evaporate, infiltrate/seep into cracks in the Earth’s surface
8. Explain how streams are formed. Use the words erosion and runoff in your answer.
Streams begin as fast-moving V-shaped channels of runoff water. Over time, more water is added to the stream, and the
sides of the stream (stream banks) begin to erode. Erosion causes that channel to go from U-shaped to V-shaped.
9. How is weathering different from erosion?
Erosion involves the movement of those weathered particles over time (by 4 different agents: wind, water, waves,
10. What are the two types of weathering and how are they different? (physical also called mechanical weathering)
Physical and chemical (chemical weathering involves a change in the composition or make up of the rock, it’s a new
rock!), while physical weathering just changes the shape. (Recall: physical and chemical changes from physical science)
11. Classify the following as examples of weathering (W) or erosion (E)
W______ frost wedging
E______ stream formation
W______ tree roots breaking up rock
W______ rust
E______ uploading
E______ sediments carried by runoff
12. Classify the following as examples of mechanical weathering (M) or chemical weathering (C)
_M_____ pothole formation due to frozen water expanding
_C_____ rust
_C_____ damaged surface of rock due to acid rain
_M_____ uploading and exfoliation
__C____ copper reacting with oxygen in the air and turning green
__M____ humans digging up rock at a construction site
13. Why is point source pollution different than non point source pollution?
a. Because I say so
b. Because point source reaches a point under earth’s surface
c. Because point source has a known point of origin
d. Because non point source has nothing to do with runoff.
14. Which of the following is NOT a source of freshwater?
a. Lake
b. Ocean
c. River
d. Stream
Name: _______________________________
Mineral Resources and Energy
1. What is a renewable resource? A nonrenewable resource?
Renewable resources can be replaced/replenished within our lifetime; whereas a non-renewable resource cannot be
replaced/replenished within our lifetime.
Classify the terms below as either RENEWABLE or NON-RENEWABLE. You only need to write the letter of each
B, D, E, E
A, C, F, G, H, I
Solar energy
Natural gas
Wind energy
E. Reusable
F. Millions of years to replenish
G. Petroleum
H. Fossil fuels
I. Gasoline
2. Why are the earth’s resources being depleted?
We are using Earth’s resources at a rate faster than we can replace/replenish them.
3. Why is it important to use alternative energy resources?
We would like for future generations to have some energy resources! 
4. What are some examples of fossil fuels? (coal, oil, natural gas)
5. Coal and petroleum are formed when plant and animal remains are buried and placed under very high
____________________ and _______________________. How long does this take?
*temperature and pressure; millions of years*
6. What is the definition of sustainable (it has 2 parts)? Able to be maintained at a certain level over time
7. Classify the terms below as either SUSTAINABLE or NON-SUSTAINABLE. You only need to write the letter
of each term.
B, C, D, F, G
A, E, F, H, I
Fossil Fuels
Solar energy (sunlight)
Geothermal energy
Hydroelectric power
Nuclear power
E. Using gasoline to power a car
F. Recycling paper
G. Wind energy
H. Clear-cutting
I. Coal
Air, Water, and Land Resources
1. Why are oceans important? What about freshwater?
Name: _______________________________
Transportation (travel by ship), food (fish), renewable source of energy (wave/tidal power), non-renewable energy (oil
deposits buried deep underneath the seafloor, think offshore drilling); freshwater: we need it to survive (and water
Fun Fact: How long can you survive without water?
2. How much of the Earth’s surface is water? 70%
3. What is runoff and what does it have to do with pollution? When precipitation hits Earth’s surface and does not
evaporate or sink into the ground (infiltrate), it runs off down slopes into surface water: lakes, rivers, streams.
4. What are some ways that we pollute the water? Trash/waste, fertilizers (nitrates, sulfides), runoff from road
(leaking fuel from cars etc.)
5. What is point source pollution? Nonpoint source pollution? Give an example of each.
Point source pollution can be traced back to 1 source, while non-point pollution cannot be traced to just 1 source
(results from many sources coming together); point =
6. What is the layer that protects the earth from UV radiation?
Stratosphere (contains ozone)
7. How do we damage this layer?
Chloroflourocarbons into the air
8. What are some ways that we pollute the air?
Dust, smog/smoke from industrial factories
9. Match each of the following types of air pollution with its definition
_____ sulfur oxides
a. soot, ash, dust in the air
_____ nitrogen oxides
b. primary component of smog
_____ carbon monoxide
c. colorless, odorless poisonous gas
_____ particulate matter
d. found in gasoline, batteries, paint
_____ ground-level ozone
e. primary cause of acid rain
_____ lead
f. forms ozone, produced by industrial plants
Human Impacts
1. What is one of the things you can do to protect our resources? [reduce, reuse, recycle] – reducing total amount
used in the first place may be the most helpful
2. State one policy (or law) that the government passed to protect the air, water, or land resources. Who in the
government enforces these laws? [Water Conservation Act; who enforces?]
3. What can loggers do to prevent deforestation?
What are invasive (non-native) species,
where do they come from, and what problems do they
cause? Non-native (species not originally from that area,
usually transplanted by human action]; problems: disrupt
food web, possibly no natural predators, competition for
another species’ food.
Greenhouse Effect
1. According to the graph, what is happening to
CO2 levels and how does this affect temperature?
Name: _______________________________
Co2 levels are rising over time (positive slope); Co2 is a greenhouse gas that traps the Sun’s (solar) energy, causing
average global temperatures to rise (global warming).
2. What is the greenhouse effect?
The greenhouse effect is the process whereby carbon-containing gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane
(CH4) trap Solar energy in the atmosphere. This heat-trapping effect can cause global temperatures to rise.
3. What are some greenhouse gases? What do they do? Where do they come from?
Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) – they are responsible for the greenhouse gas effect (above). They come from
human and animal waste, humans and animals breathing, burning fossil fuels (such as gasoline in our cars).
4. What will happen to our Earth if we continue to put greenhouse gases into the environment?
If we continue to put greenhouse gases into the environment, the Earth’s average global temperature will continue
to rise. This change in temperature can impact entire biomes/ecosystems. Thinking specifically of the tundra: ice
caps/glaciers will continue to melt as global temperatures rise, which causes a rise in sea level. This will affect
marine environments as well as coastal environments (some states/countries near sea level, for example, will sink)
5. How can we lower greenhouse gas emissions (and thus our carbon footprint)?
There are many correct answers; ex) use fewer fossil fuels or ones with fewer carbon emissions (natural gas), use
less electricity (cut off lights/be conscious of everyday actions)
Alternative Energy
Complete the following table
Name of
energy source
From the sun
No pollution,
Inefficient, expensive
to install solar panels,
not always sunny;
depends on the weather
From moving air
No pollution, easy to
set up, could provide
80% of world’s energy
Depends on the
weather, wind turbines
are expensive, can
disrupt migratory birds
From moving
No pollution,
Dams eventually fill up
From hot magma
underneath the
crust/close to the
Naturally occurring,
Same area dries up
after 10-15 years
Energy from
radioactive nuclei
Cheap, lots of energy
Expensive equipment
for nuclear power
Name: _______________________________
Fossil Fuels
Cheap, widely used
Carbon emissions that
contribute to the
greenhouse gas effect,
and thus global
Multiple Choice Review
1. Fossil fuels are seen by some scientists as a temporary energy source. Which aspect of fossil fuels encourages
scientists to find other sources of energy production?
a. It takes a very long time for fossil fuels to form.
b. The burning of fossil fuels results in decreased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
c. Fossil fuels store energy for a short period of time.
d. Fossil fuels are too expensive to produce.
2. Minerals that are deposited when magma hardens are formed by _________ processes.
a. Igneous
a. Point source
b. Placer
c. Erosion
3. Resources that can be replenished over a relatively short time span are called ____.
a. fossil fuels
b. nonrenewable resources
c. renewable resources
d. mineral resources
4. Which of the following is NOT required to form coal?
a. Heat
b. Magma
c. High pressure
d. Buried plant remains
5. Pollution carried to a water source by runoff is an example of ____
a. Point source pollution
b. Nonpoint source pollution
c. Thermal pollution
d. Groundwater pollution
6. The earth is considered the “water planet” because the surface is about _____% water.
a. 60
b. 70
c. 10
d. 3
7. Even though most of the Earth’s surface is water, why do we still need to make sure to use it carefully?
a. Most of the water is polluted
b. Most of the water is not freshwater
c. Most people live far from a water source
d. Most of the water is underground
8. Which of the following is NOT a function of the atmosphere?
a. Protects us from UV rays
b. Traps heat
c. Provides oxygen
d. Protects us from CFC’s
Name: _______________________________
9. What in the atmosphere protects people from the sun’s ultraviolet radiation?
a. Oxygen
b. Nitrogen
c. Ozone
d. Carbon dioxide
10. Which of the following is NOT a main cause of air pollution?
a. Power plants
b. Transportation
c. Burning fossil fuels
d. Coal mining
11. Which of the following is NOT a main effect of air pollution?
a. Destruction of habitats
b. Acid rain
c. Reduced visibility and haze
d. Respiratory illness
12. Which of the following is largely responsible for the growing hole in the Ozone layer?
a. Carbon dioxide
b. Methane
c. CFCs
d. Carbon monoxide
13. Which of the following is NOT a major resource we get from the land?
a. Crops
b. Minerals
c. CO2
d. Wood
1. Label the 5 major oceans on the map below.
2. What is the definition of an ecosystem?
An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunction with the nonliving
components of their environment.
Name: _______________________________
3. In the absence of sunlight, where do organisms in the deep ocean get their energy? [deep-sea thermal vents:
bacteria tap the energy from hydrogen sulfide]
4. What is coral reef bleaching? Describe what causes it and what happens to the coral as a result?
[think back to article on coral reefs in South Florida]
5. Density currents can be caused by differences in temperature or salinity. For each, explain which type of water
rises and which sinks.
Temperature - ___hot water_____ rises, ____cold water______ sinks
Salinity - _____unsalty water___ rises, _____salty water________ sinks
6. How are density currents similar to convection currents in the mantle?
Cycle: hot magma rises (less dense) towards the crust, cools (more dense) and moves back down towards the lower
mantle [those currents are based on density]
Upwelling generally occurs where two or more ocean currents diverge, or flow away from one another.
7. Use the map below to circle a location where you think upwelling could occur.
8. How does upwelling affect the marine life (fish, etc.) in the area?
9. What is downwelling and what does it bring?
10. How might global climate change and the greenhouse effect affect ocean currents? What will this do to
weather in different regions?
11. What are 3 things that determine the height of a wave?
Wind speed, wind duration, fetch (how far the wind travels)
12. Under what conditions would you expect to find the highest waves? (when 3 factors in #11 are highest)
Name: _______________________________
13. In the diagram below, label the crest, trough, wavelength, and wave height. (DRAW)
Multiple Choice Review:
1. What causes ocean currents?
a. The sun, only
b. The sun, density, and wind
c. The moon, only
d. The sun and moon
2. (SKIP) Which of the following correctly describes the relationship between polyps and algae in coral reefs?
a. polyps provide oxygen for algae and algae clean the polyps
b. algae provide a place for polyps to grow and polyps scare off predators of algae
c. polyps and algae compete for nutrients
d. polyps provide nutrients for algae and algae provide sugar for polyps
3. Which of the following does NOT affect the height of a wave?
a. Wind speed
b. Salinity
c.Wind duration
d. Fetch (space over which wind travels)
4. Which of the following will lead to the tallest wave?
a. High wind speed and long wind duration
b. Low wind speed and long wind duration
c. High wind speed and short wind duration
d. Low wind speed and short wind duration
1. Draw an elliptical orbit.
2. What does Global Positioning Systems (GPS) show you?
Position on Earth (latitude, longitude)
3. What is a satellite?
Artificial object placed into orbit
4. What is the purpose of latitude and longitude? (specify position on a map)
5. On a globe, in which direction do latitude and longitude run? (latitude: left to right/ east to west; longitude: top to
bottom or north to south)
Name: _______________________________
6. What is the name for 0 degrees latitude? What about 0 degrees longitude?
Equator; Prime Meridian
7. What do the lines on a topographic map show? (contour lines connect areas of equal elevation)
8. Fill in the latitude and/or longitude
coordinates of the following locations using the map
below. (DRAW IN)
the topographic map below for questions #9-10
9. What is the size of the contour interval?
10. What is the elevation of the smiley face on the topographic map above?
360 (10 per contour interval)
11. Using the map below, which side is steeper?
A. East side
B. West side
C. Neither
12. Fill in the directions on this compass rose: (NESW)