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Transcript
I. GERUNDIVES (page 172) – which decline like any –us, -a, -um adjective
Gerundives are more commonly used, instead of a gerund when the there
is an object – keep in mind the case needed 1st, then gender and number of
Ch. 51?
What’s
in
the noun (page 172)
Use of the gerundive with ad to show purpose (page 172)
 Use of the gerundive in the genitive case preceding causā to show
purpose (p. 172, sentence # 2)
 The gerundive in the ablative case usually expresses cause or means (p.
172, sentence # 7)
 NB 1: The gerundive of deponent verbs is translated passively. (page 172)
 P.S. Two epigrams (page 173)
 The Roman Empire (page 107)
incitō, incitāre, incitāvī, incitātus/a/um = to spur on, urge on, incite
doleō, dolēre, doluī, dolitus/a/um = to feel pain, suffer
recēdō, recēdere, recessī, recessus/a/um = to go back, retire
doctrīna, doctrīnae F. = teaching, learning
praeceptum, praeceptī N. = advice, precept; instruction
sōlācium, sōlāciī N. = comfort
precēs, precum F pl. = prayers
voluptās, voluptātis F. = pleasure
plausus, plausūs M = applause
quisquis, quicquid = whoever, whatever
hodiernus, hodierna, hodiernum = today’s
suprēmus, suprēma, suprēmum = last, highest
tūtus, tūta, tūtum = safe
mollis, molle = soft, gentle
nōnnumquam = sometimes
semel = once
bis = twice
ter = thrice, three times
Gerundives (-nd-)
I. They look like gerunds, but gerundives are more versatile than
gerunds.
b. What are the two main uses for gerundives?
(Ch. 51)
(Ch. 52)
c. Are gerundives nouns like gerunds, or are gerundives adjectives?
Noun / Adjective (Circle one)
d. What is the other name for the gerundive?
RULE: When the gerund takes an object,
the Romans typically converted the gerund
phrase into a gerundive phrase, by (1)
putting the noun into the necessary case
(so, if you have means, put noun into the
ablative. If you are using causā, put noun
into genitive, etc.), then (2) change the
l
ending on the gerund to a gerundive to
agree in case, number & gender with the
noun
Gerundives (aka, Future Passive Participle):
two uses…(1) Verbal Adjectives used like gerunds, but made
to agree with nouns (this chapter), (2) The Passive
Periphrastic Gerundive + a form of verb “sum” to show
necessity, obligation or duty – refer to chapter 52.
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How to distinguish Gerunds from Gerundives
GERUNDS... ↓↓
GERUNDIVES… ↓↓↓
Verbal NOUNS
Verbal ADJECTIVES
Don’t agree with anything
Agree with a noun in any case
Only singular
Can be singular or plural
Only neuter
Can be M, F, or N depending on the noun it
agrees with
ACTIVE
PASSIVE
(1)The Forms of the Gerundive/Future Passive ParticipleDeclines like any regular 1st-2nd Declension Adjective like
magnus, magna, magnum in agreement with a noun or
pronoun in case, #, and gender. Here’s the singular:
Nom Sing: pugnandus
pugnanda
pugnandum
(x) to be fought
Gen Sing: pugnandī
pugnandae
pugnandī
of (x) to be fought
Dat Sing : pugnandō
pugnandae
pugnandō
to/for (x) to be fought
Acc Sing: pugnandum
pugnandam
pugnandum
(x) to be fought
Abl Sing: pugnandō
pugnandā
pugnandō
WFBI (x) to be fought
Voc Sing: pugnande
pugnanda
pugnandum
O (x) to be fought!
 Translation: (1a) “to be verbed” , or (1b) “ing” if used like the gerund.
l(1)The Forms of the Gerundive/Future Passive Participle-
Declines like any regular 1st-2nd Declension Adjective like
magnus, magna, magnum in agreement with a noun or
pronoun in case, #, and gender. Here’s the plural:
Nom Plural: pugnandī
pugnandae
pugnanda
(x) to be fought
Gen Plural: pugnandōrum pugnandārum
pugnandōrum
of (x) to be fought
Dat Plural: pugnandīs
pugnandīs
pugnandīs
to/for (x) to be fought
Acc Plural: pugnandōs
pugnandās
pugnanda
(x) to be fought
Abl Plural: pugnandīs
pugnandīs
pugnandīs
WFBI (x) to be fought
Voc Plural: pugnandī
pugnandae
pugnanda
O (x) to be fought!
 Translation: (1a) “to be verbed” , or (1b) “ing” if used like the gerund.
o (1) mostly literally “to be verbed”:
Gerundives ager arandus = “the field to be
plowed”; epistula mittenda = “the
letter to be sent”
– how to
o (2) “verbing” in a gerund clause that
has been converted to a gerundive
clause. (see below)
translate
o (3) Gerundive of Obligation:
gerundive + form of the verb esse “to
them
be” (see Chapter 52)
o (4) Gerundives with special verbs
showing purpose or intent (see
Chapter 52)
Converting o Whenever the gerund takes an
object, the Romans more often
Gerund
turned
it
into
a
“gerundive
phrase”
phrases
into
Gerundive o There is no difference in meaning
between a gerund and a gerundive
phrases
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in this usage.
o When translating a gerund or a
gerundive phrase, always translate
the gerund/gerundive first
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RULES for
Converting
Gerund
phrases
into
Gerundive
phrases
1.Figure out what case you need
(causā governs the genitive; ad the
accusative; means is ablative)
2.Put the noun in that case.
3.Make the gerundive agree with that
noun in case, number and gender.
1.Remember, when translating a
gerund or a gerundive phrase,
always translate the
gerund/gerundive first
2
o Horatius won fame by writing poems. =
Examples
carmina scrībendō Horātius fāmam meruit.
of
( gerund) =… carminibus scrībendīs
Gerund/
Horātius fāmam meruit. ( gerundive)
Gerundives
phrases
o The poet is sitting in his study to
compose new poems. = Poēta in tablīnō
nova carmina scrībendī causā sedet. (
gerund) = Poēta in tablīnō novōrum
carminum scrībendōrum causā sedet.
(gerundive)
Gerundives
of
o Deponent verbs have a gerundive
o Deponent gerundive are passive in
translation, like other gerundives:
deponent
verbs
o Examples: cōnandus/a/um = to be
tried
o sequendus/a/um = to be followed
o miserandus/a/um = to be pitied
Gerundives o Puer mirande, bene
– an
pugnavistī!
example
using the
=
vocative
O boy to be admired/worthy of
being admired, you have
fought well!
TRANSLATE into your composition books:
1. Imperator urbis capiendae causā milites suos promisit.
2. Ille sapiens librīs legendīs plūra cognoscet.
3. Ad rem pūblicam servandam Cicerō Catilinam petēbat.
4. Hic est peritus pugnandī; ille (est peritus) carminum
scrībendōrum.
5.Mea uxor philosophiae legendae studet.
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6. Cicerō causae loquendae causā in forō stetit. Cupidi erāmus multōrum
audiendōrum.
7. Puer miserande, bene vīxistī et mortuus es!
8. Puella miseranda, bene vīxistī et mortua es!
9. vaccārum vendendārum gratiā agricola ad Forum ēgit.
10. Sapientiā ūtere ad vītam bene agendam. (vītam agere = to live)
Finis
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