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World History Name___________________________________ THE MIDDLE AGES Chapter 13 Section 1: Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms GOAL How did Germanic invasions, Christianity, and the rule of Charlemagne contribute to the culture of the Middle Ages? Middle Ages had its roots in 1) 2) 3) The repeated invasions and constant warfare caused five changes in the economy, government and culture: 1) 4) 2) 5) 3) What role did the Church have during the time of political chaos? How did the concept of government change due to Germanic invasions? Who was Clovis and for what two reasons is he significant? How did Christianity spread? What were the significances of monasteries during this time period? How did Pope Gregory I modify the pope’s office (papacy)? Who was Charles Martel and what was his significance? What was the name of the new ruling family when the pope anointed Pepin “king by the grace of God”? Describe the numerous achievements of Charlemagne (Charles the Great). Chapter 13 Section 2: Feudalism in Europe GOAL What factors led to the development of feudalism and what impact did feudalism have on Middle Ages society? 1) What was the impact of Viking, Magyar, and Muslim invasions on medieval Europe? 2) The feudal system was based on _______________________ and _________________________. 3) Define the following terms. Lord: Vassal: Fief: Knights: Serfs: Tithe: 4) Medieval writers classified people into what three groups? 5) What was a manor? Explain how it was the basic economic arrangement and self-contained world. 6) What was life like for a serf or peasant on a manor? 7) Why did serfs accept their lot in life? Feudalism Emerges 1. Which three groups invaded Europe in the early Middle Ages and how did this impact society? 2. _______________________________ was a social system based on _______________________________________ Emerged out of need for… 3. The Feudal System: KINGS Needed ________ Gave ___________ Clergy were also given protection from lords. LORDS Received __________ (land) from king became known as ________________ Had wealth & land but needed ___________ ______________ ____________________ KNIGHTS Provided _______________________ in exchange for __________ _________________ Oath between peasants & knights (not always spoken) Working the land obligated peasants to their overlord and the overlord to the peasants ______________________________ Followed code of ____________________________ PEASANTS Included farmers, freeholders, shoemakers, blacksmiths, tailors, weavers, bakers, etc. Those who needed _______________________ & __________________ became __________________ who were _________________________________ o Had some rights but could not….. o Given protection 4. __________________________= _______________________________ aspect of feudalism ______________= lord’s estate (______________=military structure) 5. According to literature, there were three classes in Medieval Society: 1) Those who __________________ 2) Those who __________________3)Those who ___________________ Chapter 13 Section 3: The Age of Chivalry GOAL How did knights and chivalry impact the culture of the Middle Ages? 1) In what ways did the technology of warfare change? 2) What was a warrior’s (knight’s) role in feudal society? 3) Who were the three masters a knight had to defend in the Code of Chivalry? 4) How were castles defended in medieval warfare? 5) How did medieval literature portray warfare, castle life, and chivalry? 6) Who were troubadours? 7) Most women in feudal society were _________, just as most men were. a) What roles and privileges did noblewomen have in feudal society? b) What roles did peasant women have in feudal society? Chapter 13 Section 4: The Power of the Church GOAL How did religion influence social structure and politics in the Middle Ages? 1. How did the sword analogy of Gelasius I apply to religious and political conflict in the Middle Ages? 2. How was the Church organized? 3. How was religion a unifying force? 4. What were sacraments? Give an example. 5. Why did medieval peasants support the Church? 6. What was canon law? 7. How and why was excommunication used? 8. What was the practice of interdict and how was it used? 9. Why did Otto I ally himself with the Church? 10. What did Otto I’s Roman Empire of the German Nation later become known as? 11. How did the practice of lay investiture create conflict between the pope and emperor? 12. What compromise was made in the Concordat of Worms? 13. How and why did Frederick I fail to unify the German states? 14. For what two reasons why the German states did not unify in the Middle Ages? World History Name_____________________________Date_________ Chapter 14 Section 1: Church Reform and Crusades 1) What three main issues were troubling the Church? Explain each. 2) Why did the Church reform movement begin at the monastery at Cluny? 3) How was the Church restructured? 4) What was the papal Curia and what tasks did it carry out? 5) Who were friars and how were they different from monks? 6) What were three orders of friars? 7) Describe the churches built in the Romanesque style of architecture. 8) Describe four characteristics of Gothic architecture. 9) What were the elements of Gothic architecture meant to do? 10) Name one famous Gothic cathedral. 11) How did the goals of the Crusades change over the years? 12) What was the Reconquista? 13) What was the Inquisition? 14) What were the effects of the Crusades? Chapter 14 Section 2: Changes in Medieval Society 1) What were two new agricultural methods that increased the food supply? 2) What were the positive effects from a food production increase? 3) What was a guild and what did it work to do? 4) What was the Commercial Revolution? Explain. 5) How did trading from fair to fair impact business and banking? 6) Describe urban life in the growing cities of Europe. 7) Who were burghers and what was their significance in the social order? 8) How did the Crusades contribute to the expansion of trade and learning for Europe? 9) Describe the universities that were emerging in Europe. 10) Why was the use of the vernacular important? 11) Who were Thomas Aquinas and the Scholastics (no, they were not a band)? Chapter 14 Section 3: England and France Develop ENGLAND What was the conflict between William the Conqueror and Harold Godwinson regarding? FRANCE What dynasty began with the rule of Hugh Capet? What were some of the accomplishments of King Philip II? What two goals did English kings try to achieve over the next few centuries? Explain Henry’s system of royal judges and courts. What were the accomplishments of Louis IX? What is the significance of common law? Why did Philip II call the Estates-General together? Why did nobles force King John to sign the Magna Carta? Who were the members of the First, Second, and Third Estates? Why did the nobles force King John to sign the Magna Carta? What did the Magna Carta state? What basic legal rights did the Magna Carta guarantees that are used by both England and the U.S. today? Describe King Edward I’s Model Parliament and its impact on royal power. How was the Estates-General similar to the English Parliament? How was it different form the EstatesGeneral? What democratic traditions were emerging in England and France? Chapter 14 Section 4: Hundred Years’ War and the Plague 1. Summarize the causes of the division of the Church and the effects of the Great Schism. 2. Who was John Wycliffe & what were his beliefs? 3. What was the significance of the Bubonic Plague or Black Death? 4. How did the Hundred Years’ War begin? 5. Describe the longbow and its significance. 6. Who was Joan of Arc? 7. What were the impacts of the Hundred Years’ War?