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Fall of Rome
How did the Roman Empire split? What were the two “halves”?
Western Europe and Byzantine Empire (East)
Why was Constantinople the center of the Byzantine Empire?
Located at the crossroads of Europe and Asia
What helped support the large population of Constantinople?
The river and other close water ways
What did the Byzantine civilization help preserve from the previous Roman Empire?
Greek and Roman philosophy
In Western Europe, what caused the decline of trade, the breakdown of the central government and the rise of power in the Roman
Catholic Church and lack of learning?
Fall of the Roman Empire
What were two immediate results of the fall of the Roman Empire?
A period of economic disorder and weak central government
Why did feudalism begin in Western Europe?
Protection was needed from Barbarian invasions
What was the main economic activity of the feudal manor?
What contributed to the growth of feudalism in Europe?
Collapse of a strong central government
Feudalism and the manorial systems eventually led to what type of government in Western Europe?
What did the caste system in India and the feudal system in Europe have in common?
A division of society into hereditary social class
What was the primary characteristic of feudal society in medieval Europe?
An exchange of land for services
List four effects of the Hundred Years’ War:
Changes to the map of France, changes to the power of the kings of France and England, changes to military weapons, contribution
to the downfall of feudalism
In what way are Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism and Protestantism similar?
All branches of Christianity
What religion was the main feature of life in the Byzantine Empire?
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
What did the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe provide the people during the Middle Ages?
Sense of stability, unity and order
Which institution served as the main unifying force of medieval Western Europe?
The church
What were the Crusades?
A holy war to win back the holy land from the Islamic nation
Why did people join the fight?
To gain entry into heaven
What was the indirect contribution of the Crusades?
Discovery of the New World by stimulating European demand for trade with the East
What was one major result of the Crusades?
Spread of Middle Eastern culture and technology to Europe
What is a valid generalization about the impact of the Crusades?
Increased trade between Asia and Europe
What is the name of the event in which the Christian Church was weakened due to a controversy in the power of the Pope?
The Great Schism
Economy and Inventions
Early trade guilds were promised support if they could not work due to illness or old age. This is similar to what modern day work
Unemployment insurance
What was the result of an increase in commerce and trade during the Middle Ages?
Increased growth of towns and cities
What was the result of the invention of windmills during early Middle Ages?
Greater productivity in areas without rushing streams for watermills
Where did the plague begin?
Coastal areas and spread inland
How did the plague reach Europe?
From rats that came over on ships
How much of the population died due to the plague?
About half
Magna Carta and Parliament
In what way did the Magna Carta contribute to the development of the English government?
It limited the power of the monarch
How did the Magna Carta get signed?
King John was cornered and forced to sign it
What happened to the power of the king when it was signed?
It was limited
What rights did it guarantee?
Basic and legal rights
What ideals helped develop the Parliament?
The Athens of Pericles and Republican Rome