Download Physiology (GRPS-101) Practical notes Freshmen 2011

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Transcript
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
The respiratory system consists of the following parts, divided into the upper
and lower respiratory tracts:
Parts of the Upper Respiratory Tract



Mouth, nose & nasal cavity: The
function of this part of the system is
to warm, filter and moisten the
incoming air
Pharynx: Here the throat divides
into the trachea (wind pipe) and
oesophagus (food pipe). There is
also a small flap of cartilage called
the epiglottis which prevents food
from entering the trachea
Larynx: This is also known as the
voice box as it is where sound is
generated. It also helps protect the
trachea by producing a strong cough
reflex if any solid objects pass the
epiglottis.
Parts of the Lower Respiratory Tract
 Trachea: Also known as the windpipe this is the tube which carries air
from the throat into the lungs.
 Bronchi: The trachea divides into two tubes called bronchi, one entering
the left and one entering the right lung. Once inside the lung the bronchi
split several ways, forming tertiary bronchi.
 Bronchioles: Tertiary bronchi continue to divide and become bronchioles,
very narrow tubes and they lead to alveolar sacs.
 Alveoli: Individual hollow cavities contained within alveolar sacs (or
ducts). Alveoli have very thin walls which permit the exchange of gases
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide.
 Diaphragm: The diaphragm is a broad band of muscle which sits
underneath the lungs, attaching to the lower ribs, sternum and lumbar spine
and forming the base of the thoracic cavity.
Physiology (GRPS-101) Practical notes
Freshmen 2011 - 2012
Counting Respiration
Equipment:
- Watch
Procedure:
1. Observe the rise and fall of the client’s (one inspiration and one expiration).
2. Count respirations for one full minute
3. Record reading in cycle per minute or breaths per minute.
Notes:
- When counting respiration don't mention that to the client as he can control
breathing rate (usually measuring temperature is a part of measuring pulse one
minute for pulse and another for respiration)
Result:
Respiratory rate (R) is ----- c/m
Normal Respiratory rate range in adult
12–20 breaths per minute / cycle per minute
-1-