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Notes pages 141- 147
Early Egyptian Rule
The Early Period
 Pharaoh – king of Egypt, believed to be a god in human form, had total authority
 Vizier – advisor to the pharaoh, carried out the pharaoh’s decrees
 Decrees – commands
 Hieroglyphics – Egyptian system of writing, more thaqn 700 different symbols which stood
for sounds, whole words, or ideas
 Scribes learned hieroglyphics and math, wrote on stone and papyrus
 Papyrus – paperlike material made from reeds and used to record important written records
 Egyptian history – three parts – the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New
Kingdom – each period ruled by one pharaoh at a time
 Intermediate periods – when Egypt was ruled by competing dynasties who fought with each
The Old Kingdom (Age of the Pyramids)
 2625 BC – 2130 BC (500 years)
 Advances in building technology – pyramids
 Pyramid – a burial place for the dead
 Mummification – process of preserving a body for the afterlife
 Tombs were strong and protected mummies and belongings
 Book of the Dead – prayers for the dead
Building the Pyramids
 Imhotep – architect to King Zoser, began new style of royal tomb – stone and more layers
created a pyramid
 Giza – home of the Great Pyramid (pharaoh Kufu) and the Great Sphin
 Labor tax supplied the government with workers for pyramid building – paid during
Egyptian Way of Life
 Craftworkers – artists, builders, carpenters, stonecutters – built and decorated the
pyramids, temples, and tombs – important to society
 Workdays – sunrise to sunset
 10 days of work, one day of rest
 Enjoyed music, singing, dancing at festivals
 Women wore long sleeveless dresses of linen
 Men wore knee-length linen skirts with or without shirts
 All classes wore jewelry and makeup
 Houses made of mud brick, small shrine for worship in houses, furniture included chests,
stools, chairs, beds
Women in charge of household, sometimes priestesses and craftworkers. Women wove
linen, allowed to own property, legal rights
Children were gifts from the gods
Education influenced by gender and wealth – wealthy learned writing , math, and literature