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HCS 1100: SLO 2
* Though immunization programs and the
development of antibiotics have greatly
improved the spread of infectious diseases,
there is still an increase in the rate of
infectious diseases.
*More crowding in cities
increases the spread of disease.
*Poor sanitation, direct and indirect
contact and pests spread disease
* More contact between humans and animals,
allowing the spread of animal pathogens to
human hosts. Examples: HIV from
chimpanzees, West Nile from birds, H1N1 from
*The ability of travel especially by air
has increased the speed and ability of
infectious organisms to spread
*Being able to keep people alive
longer in debilitated states can
subject them to opportunistic
*Changes allow for foods to be
stored, processed and shipped long
distances without proper monitoring.
* All societies establish and enforce measures designed
to protect the health of their populations. Most of
these practices are concerned with preventing the
spread of infectious organisms.
* In the past, people would throw their human waste
out the window and into the street leading to great
epidemics of infectious disease.
* Today, the practice of diverting sewage into
processing plants where harmless “good” microbes
work to destroy pathogens. The result is a noninfectious sludge that makes excellent fertilizer.
* Drinking water must be filtered to purify
municipal water supplies to prevent dangerous
pathogens such as typhoid bacilli, polio, and
hepatitis viruses.
* A close and constant watch is kept on the
microbial population in the water supply
*Food is a natural breeding place for many
dangerous pathogens. Some of these pathogens
- Botulism bacillus, which grows in improperly
canned foods
- Staph or Staphylococcus aureus
- Salmonella, which is transmitted in eggs, poultry
and dairy products
*Most cities have sanitary regulations requiring
compulsory periodic inspections of foodhandling establishments
* Milk is rendered free of pathogens by
pasteurization, a process in which the milk is
heated to 63 C (145 F) for 30 minutes and then
cooled rapidly before being packaged.