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Introduction to Psychology
Unit Four: Personality
(Modules 17, 18, 19, 20, 21)
Module 17: Psychodynamic and humanistic perspectives on
Learning Goals:
- What is "personality"?
- What was Sigmund Freud's psychodynamic perspective on personality? Is it valid?
- What is the humanistic perspective on personality? Is it valid?
Terms to know:
- personality
- free association
- conscious, preconscious, unconscious
- id, superego, ego
- defense mechanisms: repression, regression, denial, reaction formation, projection,
rationalization, displacement
- psychosexual stages
- Alfred Adler, inferiority complex
- Carl Jung, collective unconscious
- Karen Horney
- projective tests: TAT, Rohrschach
- Abraham Maslow, self-actualization
- Carl Rogers, unconditional positive regard
Module 17 Self-Check: pp. 338 - 340
Module 18: Trait and social-cognitive perspectives on personality
Learning Goals:
- What are the "Big Five Personality Traits"?
- What is a personality inventory?
- What is the social-cognitive perspective on personality? What kind of factors
(according to this perspective) from our environment influence our personality?
Terms to Know:
- trait
- personality inventory
- validity
- reliability
- Albert Bandura
- reciprocal determinism
- external locus of control
- internal locus of control
- learned helplessness
- Martin Seligmann
- positive psychology
Module 18 Self-Check: pp. 358 - 360
Module 19: Classical Conditioning
Learning Goals:
- Explain what a classically conditioned response is (and Ivan Pavlov's role in its
- Describe the sequence of the classical conditioning processes: acquisition,
extinction, spontaneous recovery
- Define generalization and discrimination
- Explain the behaviorist perspective (John Watson)
Terms to Know:
- learning
- classical conditioning
- stimulus
unconditioned stimulus
unconditioned response
conditioned stimulus
conditioned response
- response
- acquisition
- extinction
- spontaneous recovery
- Ivan Pavlov
- generalization
- discrimination
- behaviorism
- John Watson
- cognition
- John Garcia
Module 19 Self-Check: pp. 382 - 383
Module 20: Operant Conditioning
Learning Goals:
- Define operant conditioning
- Define the law of effect and the different kinds of reinforcement
- Describe the effects of punishment
- Explain how behaviors are influenced through shaping, discrimination, and
Terms to Know:
- operant conditioning
- law of effect
- Edward Thorndike/B.F. Skinner
- reinforcement
- punishment
- shaping
- discrimination
- extinction
- latent learning
- cognitive map
- overjustification effect
- biological predisposition
Module 20 Self-Check: pp. 406 - 408
Module 21: Observational Learning
Learning Goals:
- Define observational learning and discuss Albert Bandura's experiments
- Understand how observational learning can lead to pro- and antisocial behaviors
Terms to Know:
- observational learning
- model/modeling
- Albert Bandura
- vicarious learning
- mirror neurons
- antisocial behavior
- prosocial behavior
Module 21 Self-Check: pp. 416 - 418